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HTM 05-03 Operational provisions Part C – Textiles and furnishings

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Firecode – fire safety in the NHS Health Technical Memorandum 05-03: Operational provisions
 
 
 
Part C: Textiles and furnishings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
www.tso.co.uk
 
 
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Title
Firecode HTM 05-03: Part C - Textiles & furnishings
AuthorDH Estates & Facilities
 
 
Publication DateJune 2007
Target AudiencePCT CEs, NHS Trust CEs, SHA CEs, 
 
Care Trust CEs, Foundation Trust CEs , Directors of Finance, Trust Fire Safety Advisers, 
 
Supplies Managers
Circulation ListNHS Purchasing & Supply Agency
DescriptionThe 
 
document sets out the appropriate fire standards for textiles, furniture and furnishings for 
 
use in healthcare premises in England.
Cross RefN/A
Superseded DocsFirecode HTM 87
 
 
Action RequiredN/A
TimingN/A
Contact DetailsPaul Roberts
Estates & Facilities Division Quarry House, Quarry Hill Leeds
LS2 7UE
0113 254 6881
For Recipient's Use
 
 
 
 
Firecode – Fire safety in the NHS Health Technical Memorandum 05-03: Operational provisions
 
 
 
Part C: Textiles and furnishings
 
 
 
This document replaces Health Technical Memorandum 87
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
London: The Stationery Office
 
Firecode – Fire safety in the NHS: HTM 05-03: Operational provisions – Part C: Textiles 
 
and furnishings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Published by TSO (The Stationery Office) and available from:
 
Online
www.tsoshop.co.uk
 
Mail, Telephone, Fax & E-mail
TSO
PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN
Telephone orders/General enquiries 0870 600 5522
Fax orders 0870 600 5533
E-mail   customer.services@tso.co.uk
Textphone 0870 240 3701
 
TSO Shops
123 Kingsway, London WC2B 6PQ 020 7242 6393 Fax 020 7242 6394
16 Arthur Street, Belfast BT1 4GD 028 9023 8451 Fax 028 9023 5401
71 Lothian Road, Edinburgh EH3 9AZ 0870 606 5566 Fax 0870 606 5588
 
TSO@Blackwell and other Accredited Agents
(see Yellow Pages)
and through good booksellers
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
? Crown copyright 2007
 
Published with the permission of the Estates and Facilities Division of the Department of 
 
Health,
on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
 
This document/publication is not covered by the HMSO Click-Use Licences for core or added-
 
value material.
 
If you wish to re-use this material, please send your application to:
 
Copyright applications The Copyright Unit OPSI
St Clements House 2–16 Colegate Norwich NR3 1BQ
 
ISBN 978-0-11-322786-0
 
First published 2007
 
Printed in the United Kingdom for The Stationery Office
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The paper used in the printing of this document (Greencoat Velvet) is produced in a mill 
 
that has obtained both ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 accreditations, which means that all 
 
responsibilities to the local environment and manufacturing processes are strictly 
 
monitored. Greencoat Velvet boasts the following environmental credentials:
 
? ?80% recycled post-consumer fibre
 
? ?10% TCF (Totally Chlorine Free) virgin fibre
 
? ?10% ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free) fibre
 
? ?FSC certification
 
? ?NAPM recycled certification
 
 
 
ii
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Scope and status
 
This Health Technical Memorandum sets out recommendations, advice and guidance for the 
 
purchase, use and donations of furniture and textiles in hospitals and other healthcare 
 
premises.
 
It should not be quoted as if it were a specification, and any claims of compliance should 
 
be carefully examined to ensure they are not misleading.
 
Any user of this Health Technical Memorandum is expected to be able to justify any course of 
 
action that deviates from the recommendations, including the using of alternative solutions.
 
Compliance with the Health Technical Memorandum cannot confer immunity from legal 
 
obligations. Attention is drawn to legal requirements in respect of planning and approval, 
 
and to the need to consult with appropriate bodies, which might include building control 
 
bodies and the fire and rescue authorities.
 
This Health Technical Memorandum replaces the guidance contained in the previous edition of 
 
Health Technical Memorandum 87 – ‘Textiles and furniture’, which was last published in 
 
1999.
 
This guidance is also suitable for the independent healthcare sector.
 
Major changes since the last edition
 
General
 
The Department of the Environment (DoE Fire Branch) no longer exists, and the 
 
responsibilities of the branch now rest in part with both the Department for Communities and 
 
Local Government and the Building Research Establishment/Fire Research Station. Both the 
 
fire-retardant specification and the fire test specification have remained dormant for 
 
several years, and cannot now be considered extant on the basis that they have now been 
 
superseded by European technical standards.
 
European legislation
 
The principal developments have been in the publication of a number of European Council 
 
regulations, directives, decisions and recommendations which have all had an impact on the 
 
content of this revision.
 
In accordance with its obligations under the Treaty of Rome, the UK Government has 
 
introduced the
necessary national regulations to transpose the essential requirements into UK law. This 
 
revision recognises these provisions.
 
In particular, the General Product Safety Directive (2001/95/EC) has had the most 
 
significant impact on the recommendations contained in this Health Technical Memorandum. The 
 
implications of this directive are discussed, and the definitions of a “safe product”, 
 
“dangerous product” and “serious risk” are presented.
 
Technical specifications
 
This Health Technical Memorandum also recognises  the publication of a number of European 
 
technical specifications (ENs). Under the current rules of the European Standards body 
 
(CEN), the members (this includes the UK) are required to withdraw any conflicting national 
 
standard in favour of the EN. Within this document, reference is made to both British 
 
Standards and the European Standards.
 
The National classifications do not directly equate with the equivalent classifications of 
 
the European Standard; therefore, products cannot typically assume a European class unless 
 
they have been tested accordingly.
 
Other developments
 
This Health Technical Memorandum also goes further than any previous version in that it 
 
recognises present Government policy in supporting areas such as:
 
? the Keymark (the CEN mark of conformity);
 
? the use of eco-labels in textile end-use applications;
 
? the application of certain flammability requirements for medical devices;
 
 
 
 
 
 
? the publication of a draft Standard by CEN covering textiles in the healthcare system; and
 
? the use of the CE Mark.
 
Procurement policy
 
The Public Contracts Regulations 2006 provide that, subject to UK mandatory technical 
 
requirements,
a contracting authority should define the technical specifications in the following order of 
 
preference:
 
a. British standards transposing European Standards (that is, where a standard has been 
 
agreed across Europe and then subsequently adopted as a British Standard);
 
b. European technical approvals;
 
c. common technical specifications;
 
d. international standards; or
 
e. other technical reference systems established by the European standardisation bodies.
 
The above requirement is mandatory. It is only in the absence of any of the above standards 
 
(in order of preference) that British standards would apply.
 
Other than the requirements of the Public Contracts Regulations 2006 outlined above, there 
 
is no mandatory requirement to follow this guidance. However, it does represent best 
 
practice for the healthcare environment and the quoted standards should be regarded as the 
 
minimum to be applied.
 
Structure
 
Section A on technical specifications provides the necessary technical information to ensure 
 
the appropriate codes of practice and standards can be selected.
 
Section B provides supporting information on various European product certification 
 
marks/schemes in use and details the requirements of the Medical Devices Directive 
 
(93/42/EEC) and General Product Safety Directive (2001/95/EC).
 
Appendix A contains a summary of the principal provisions of relevant European Council 
 
directives, decisions and recommendations.
 
Appendix B contains comments on the principal technical standards covering textiles and fire 
 
safety.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
S.D. Christian (SD Christian Ltd)
 
Sue Bolton (Bolton Consultancy)
 
BSI Technical Committee TCI 66/-/8 (Burning behaviour of textiles)
 
Tim Smith (Rhodia Novecare Ltd)
 
DH National Fire Policy Advisory Group
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Executive summary Acknowledgements
Chapter 1Introduction1
Terminology General
The aim of fire safety
Fire safety measures for the whole hospital The use of standards for fire safety
European Union legislation Technical standards
SECTION A – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS5
Chapter 2General comments6
Scope
Medical Devices Regulations 2002 and the Medical Devices (Amendment) Regulations 2003
Performance
Fire safety in healthcare premises
Chapter 3Burning of textiles8
General
Chapter 4Furniture10
General
Commercial enterprises on hospital premises Storage furniture
Fixed or mobile screens Bedsteads
Upholstered furniture – general Divans and upholstered bed-bases Upholstered furniture 
 
Wheelchairs
Scatter cushions and seat pads Removable, loose or stretch covers Furniture in mobile 
 
vehicles Polypropylene (hard-backed) chairs Totally soft play environments Upholstered 
 
garden furniture
Chapter 5Furnishings14
General
Curtains and drapes Blinds
Curtain heading tapes Textile floor coverings Soft toys
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 6Bed assemblies 16
General Bed covers
Pressure-relief products
Chapter 7Apparel 18
General
Chapter 8Disposables 20
Sheets, pillowslips, drapes and bibs Curtains
Chapter 9Marking and labelling 21
General
Chapter 10Cleansing 22
General
Flame-retardant cotton fabrics Loading factor
Wash
Break-wash (first wash) Second wash (main wash) Wash materials Rinse/extraction
Fabrics from synthetic fibres Dry-cleaning
Chapter 11The use of a chemical flame-retardant23
General Durability
 
SECTION B – SUPPORTING INFORMATION25
Chapter 12The Keymark – the CEN/CENELEC mark of conformity26
General
How does it work?
Chapter 13Eco-labels and textile end-use applications28
Regulation (EC) No 1980/2000 of 17 July 2000 on a revised Community eco-label award scheme
Commission Decision 2002/371/EC of 15 May 2002 establishing the ecological criteria for the 
 
award of the Community eco-label to textile products
Commission Decision 2002/740/EC of 3 September 2002 establishing revised ecological criteria 
 
for the award of the Community eco-label to bed mattresses
Chapter 14General Product Safety Directive 2001/95/EC of 3 December 200130
Introduction
A “safe” product Application
Definition of a “product”
Definition of a “safe product” and a “dangerous product” Definition of a “serious risk
 
Chapter 15Medical Devices Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 199333
Introduction
Application of the directive Mattresses and bed-bases
Chapter 16ENV 14237: textiles in the healthcare system34
Introduction
Chapter 17The use of temporary structures (large tents and marquees)36
General
 
 
Chapter 18European CE (Conformité Européenne) Mark 37
General
Appendix AEuropean legislation 38
Introduction
Directive 2001/95/EC – The General Product Safety Directive  Council Directive 89/106/EEC 
 
– The Construction Products Directive
Commission Decision 2000/147/EC – Reaction to fire performance of construction products
Directive 89/391/EEC – The Safety and Health of Workers (Framework) Directive Directive 
 
89/654/EEC – The Minimum Safety and Health Requirements Directive Directives 1999/45/EC and 
 
67/548/EEC – The Classification, Packaging and
Labelling of Dangerous Preparations
Regulation (EC) 1980/2000 – Eco-label award scheme Commission Decision 2002/371/EC – 
 
Textile products Commission Decision 2002/740/EC – Bed mattresses Directive 93/42/EEC – 
 
The Medical Devices Directive Directive 88/378/EEC – The Safety of Toys Directive
Council Resolution 2003/C11/01 – Community policy strategy 2002–2006 Council Resolution 
 
2003/C299/01 – Safety of services for consumers
Appendix BEuropean and international technical specifications41
Introduction
EN 71-2 – Safety of Toys. Flammability
EN 597-1 – Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of mattresses and upholstered bed-
 
bases. Ignition source: smouldering cigarette
EN 597-2 – Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of mattresses and upholstered bed-
 
bases. Ignition source: match flame equivalent
EN 1021-1 – Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture.
Ignition source: smouldering cigarette
EN 1021-2 – Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture.
Ignition source: match-flame equivalent
EN 1101 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes.
Detailed procedure to determine the ignitability of vertically-oriented specimens (small 
 
flame)
EN 1102 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes.
 Detailed procedure to determine the flame spread of vertically-oriented specimens EN 1103 
 
– Textiles. Fabrics for apparel. Detailed procedure to determine the burning
behaviour
EN 1624 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour of industrial and technical 
 
textiles. Procedure to determine the flame spread of vertically-oriented specimens
EN 1625 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour of industrial and technical 
 
textiles. Procedure to determine the ignitability of vertically-oriented specimens
EN 12229 – Surfaces for sports areas. Procedure for the preparation of synthetic turf and 
 
needle-punch pieces
EN 12751 – Textiles. Sampling of fibres, yarns and fabrics for testing
EN 13772 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes.
Measurement of flame spread of vertically-oriented specimens with a large ignition source
EN 13773 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes.
Classification scheme
EN 14115 – Textiles. Burning behaviour of materials for marquees, large tents and related 
 
products. Ease of ignition
EN 14533 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour of bedding items.
Classification scheme
 
 
 
 
 
EN ISO 139 – Textiles. Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
EN ISO 1182 – Reaction to fire tests for building products. Non-combustibility tests EN ISO 
 
1716 – Reaction to fire tests for building products. Determination of the
heat of combustion
EN ISO 3175-4 – Textiles. Dry cleaning and finishing. Procedure for testing performance 
 
when cleaning and finishing using simulated wet cleaning
BS EN ISO 3758 – Textiles. Care labelling code using symbols
EN ISO 6330 – Textiles. Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing EN ISO 
 
6940 – Textile fabrics. Burning behaviour. Determination of ease of ignition
of vertically-oriented specimens
EN ISO 6941 – Textile fabrics. Burning behaviour. Measurement of flame spread properties of 
 
vertically-oriented specimens
EN ISO 9239-1 – Reaction to fire tests. Horizontal spread of flame on floor-covering 
 
systems. Determination of the burning behaviour using a radiant heat source
EN ISO 10528 – Textiles. Commercial laundering procedure for textile fabrics prior to 
 
flammability testing
EN ISO 11925-2 – Reaction to fire tests. Ignitability of building products subjected to 
 
direct impingement of flame. Single-flame source test
EN ISO 12952-1 –Textiles. Burning behaviour of bedding items. General test methods for the 
 
ignitability by a smouldering cigarette
EN ISO 12952-2 – Textiles. Burning behaviour of bedding items. Specific test methods for 
 
the ignitability by a smouldering cigarette
EN ISO 12952-3 – Textiles. Burning behaviour of bedding items. General test methods for the 
 
ignitability by a small open flame
EN ISO 12952-4 –Textiles. Burning behaviour of bedding items. Specific test methods for the 
 
ignitability by a small open flame
Appendix CBritish Standards with their date of original publication 47
Appendix DQuick reference to products and British Standards 49
References 50
Acts and regulations European Union legislation British Standards
ISO Standards
Department of Health publications
Department for Communities and Local Government publications
 
 
 
 
 
1 Introduction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Terminology
 
1.1 Throughout this document, in common with other guidance available, the terms “hazard” 
 
and “risk” are frequently used. It is appropriate that these two terms are defined to 
 
prevent any misunderstanding:
 
? a hazard is something that has the potential to cause harm;
 
? a risk is the chance, high or low, of that harm occurring.
 
1.2 In addition, the term “fire precautions” includes matters which may be the subject of 
 
legal requirements. This may be under specific national fire precautions legislation 
 
covering health and safety in any of the member states.
 
1.3 Various references are also made to the several kinds of legal instrument available to 
 
the European Commission:
 
? Regulations: these are directly enforceable laws, applicable and binding on member states, 
 
and consequently have force even without subsequent domestic legislation.
 
? Directives: these are also legally binding and are addressed to member states. They lay 
 
down the intended results of legislation, leaving it to the individual member states as to 
 
how these are
to be achieved. A directive is the instrument which is most commonly encountered. It is the 
 
member states’ only means of action for achieving an approximation of laws and also freedom 
 
of establishment, freedom to provide services and free movement of capital. It is the
main source of EU law in relation to health and safety (including fire safety).
 
? Decisions: these are addressed to member states or to an individual or legal entity (for 
 
example a company) and are binding to the addressee. They are particularly useful in the 
 
enforcement of competition policy.
Recommendations and opinions: these are not legally binding but do have considerable 
 
political influence.
 
General
 
1.4 Fire statistics show us that in terms of unwanted fires in the healthcare estate, it is 
 
often a textile or textile-based material that is the item first ignited. Textiles are often 
 
easy to ignite and burn rapidly (especially in a vertical orientation) unless they are 
 
inherently flame-retardant or have been treated with a chemical flame-retardant.
 
1.5 This Health Technical Memorandum sets out recommendations, advice and guidance for the 
 
purchase, use and donations of furniture and textiles in hospitals and other healthcare 
 
premises. It supersedes the existing guidance contained in Health Technical Memorandum 87 – 
 
‘Textiles and furniture’ last published in 1999.
 
The aim of fire safety
 
1.6 The principal aim of fire safety must always be to ensure that people have sufficient 
 
time to escape before the fire grows to life-threatening proportions and before the 
 
stability of the building is put at risk. The time available for escape must always be 
 
longer than the time required for escape.
 
? The time available for escape can be increased by protecting vulnerable exit routes 
 
through physical means and the careful selection of the contents.
 
? The time required for escape can be reduced by limiting or controlling the fire behaviour 
 
of the combustible contents.
 
1.7 Such activities are usually referred to as “fire safety engineering”.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fire safety measures for the whole hospital
 
1.8 The primary remit of healthcare organisations with regard to fire safety has always been 
 
the safety of patients, visitors and staff. Since the publication of the last revision of 
 
Health Technical Memorandum 87 in 1999, the UK – in complying with the essential 
 
requirements of the Framework (89/391/ EEC) and Workplace (89/654/EEC) Directives – 
 
introduced the Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations in 1998 (as amended), which have now 
 
been replaced by The Regulatory Reform  (Fire Safety) Order 2005. These regulations
(and therefore the Order) require the healthcare organisation to be in possession of an 
 
assessment of the fire risk. The guidance contained in this document will provide part of 
 
the information necessary to complete this assessment.
 
1.9 Healthcare organisations will need to select and effectively implement a combination of 
 
measures to achieve an acceptable level of fire safety, taking the following into account:
 
? the guidance in this Health Technical Memorandum;
 
? the relevant guidance contained in other parts of Firecode;
 
? all relevant legislation and statutes;
 
? the advice of the local authority fire authority;
 
? the advice of staff in the healthcare organisation (estates staff, fire safety adviser 
 
etc).
 
1.10 Products and materials that are in accordance with harmonised European technical 
 
standards provide an assumption of conformity for manufacturers who are able to claim 
 
compliance without the need for any further testing. Healthcare organisations are therefore 
 
able to ensure a consistent level of safety by providing products and materials that are 
 
considered “safe” within the definition provided by the General Products Safety Directive 
 
(2001/95/ EC) (see paragraphs 14.6–14.9).
 
The use of standards for fire safety
 
1.11 The improvement of fire safety has been the main priority in fire safety legislation. 
 
This principle has been extrapolated into the fire safety objectives of the European 
 
Commission.
 
European Union legislation
 
1.12 The publication of a number of EC directives has had an impact on the fire safety 
 
measures presented in this Health Technical Memorandum:
 
? the Framework (89/391/EEC) and Workplace (89/654/EEC) Directives introduce a requirement 
 
for an assessment of the risk from fire to be completed in all places of work;
 
? the Construction Products (89/106/EEC) Directive provides performance requirements 
 
applicable to textile floor coverings, which are included in the scope of this Health 
 
Technical Memorandum;
 
? the General Products Safety Directive (2001/95/ EC) (see Chapter 14) and the Medical 
 
Devices Directive (93/42/EEC) (see Chapter 15) both apply certain provisions to some of the 
 
items covered by this Health Technical Memorandum.
 
1.13 Explicit in the Treaty of Rome is the duty of member states to effect the approximation 
 
of the laws, regulations and administrative procedures to give national substance to the 
 
essential requirements imposed by these directives.
 
1.14 Each member state will therefore have enacted national legislation imposing the 
 
essential requirements contained in the directives.
 
Technical standards
 
Guidance was provided on the recommended fire behaviour of textiles and furniture in Health 
 
Technical Memorandum 87, first published in 1989. Appendix 1 of this document recognised the 
 
publication of a number of technical specifications by the British Standards Institution and 
 
the advice as to the recommended performance was based on those testing methods.
 
In the revision of Health Technical Memorandum 87 in 1993, the opportunity was taken to 
 
revise the list of technical specifications; in addition, reference
was made to the increasing activity in both the Commission and the European Standards Body 
 
(CEN).
 
1.15 Standardisation activity at the European level (that is, in CEN) has led to the 
 
publication of technical standards, many of them “harmonised”, which means that under the 
 
current rules of CEN membership, the UK (and all other members of
 
1 Introduction
 
 
 
 
 
CEN) have to withdraw any conflicting national standard.
 
1.16 European standards are a powerful means of enhancing the competitiveness of enterprises 
 
in the EU. They can help to protect health, safety and the environment of Europe’s 
 
citizens. They offer technical solutions to problems, and facilitate trade and cooperation 
 
across the European Community. They can improve the effectiveness of important Community 
 
policies on consumer welfare, environmental protection, trade and the single market.
 
1.17 Standards also play a useful role in helping to create the single market by supporting 
 
a series of laws called “new approach directives” (as in the case of the Medical Devices 
 
Directive (93/42/EEC) and the General Products Safety Directive (2001/95/ EC)). These 
 
European-wide directives set out the essential requirements that products need to meet 
 
before they may be sold across the whole of the European  Union.
 
1.18 “New approach directives” are special in that  they do not contain technical detail; 
 
they contain broad requirements. Manufacturers and specifiers therefore need to translate 
 
these broad “essential
requirements” into technical solutions. One of the best ways that manufacturers and 
 
specifiers can  do this is to use specially developed European standards. These standards 
 
are called harmonised standards (hEN) and they are said to give a
“presumption of conformity” with the directive for which they have been written (visit the 
 
following website for further information: www. newapproach.eu/).
1.19 
The European Commission (the Directorate- General for Health and Consumer Protection) is 
 
currently assessing the third group of existing standards with a view to possible 
 
publication of their references in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU).1 The 
 
Commission Services is currently considering which of the available standards fulfil the 
 
conditions required for such publication. The publication confers a
particular status in that a product shall be deemed “safe” (as far as risks and risk 
 
categories covered by relevant national standards are concerned) when  it conforms to 
 
voluntary national standards transposing European standards, the references to which have 
 
been published by the Commission in the OJEU.
 
1.20 Many of the technical standards covered by
this document are being considered as part of the consultation exercise under the provisions 
 
of the General Products Safety Directive (2001/95/EC). On that basis alone – the fact that 
 
such technical standards exist – manufacturers and specifiers in Europe will already be 
 
utilising the provisions of such technical standards to test their products
(or will be wishing to) and will therefore seek to express the results in the terms provided 
 
to support their claims that their products are “safe” within the definition provided in 
 
the directive.
 
1.21 A list of appropriate technical standards is provided in Appendices B and C.
 
 
 
1  With effect from 1 February 2003, the Official Journal of the European Communities (OJEC) 
 
changed its name to the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section A – Technical specifications
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2 General comments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Scope
 
2.1 This Health Technical Memorandum identifies non-building materials which, when used by 
 
themselves or in conjunction with others, are less easily ignited and have a low rate of 
 
flame spread, so that in the event of fire, if not prevented altogether it is at least 
 
delayed.
 
Medical Devices Regulations 2002  and the Medical Devices (Amendment) Regulations 2003
 
2.2 These regulations, made to fulfil the UK’s obligations under the Medical Devices 
 
Directive (93/42/EEC), may apply to some of the items covered by this Health Technical 
 
Memorandum where they are classified as medical devices. There are no specific essential 
 
requirements for fire safety in the directive (and therefore in the regulations).
 
2.3 Contained in Clause 7.1 of Annex 1 to the directive is the general requirement that, in 
 
the design of the medical device, particular attention must be paid to “the choice of 
 
materials used, particularly as regards to toxicity and, where appropriate, flammability”.
 
2.4 The recommendation in this Health Technical Memorandum as regards fire behaviour 
 
performance is considered applicable to all such products, whether or not they are 
 
classified as medical devices.
 
Performance
 
2.5 Guidance is provided on standards of flammability performance for resistance to ignition 
 
by specified ignition sources and subsequent surface spread of flame or surface flash.
 
2.6 As the methods of test for the fire behaviour aspects of textiles and textile products 
 
and textile-related products may be the same, whatever the occupancy or end use, the only 
 
variation will be the related performance recommended.
2.7 
The guidance given in this Health Technical Memorandum is relevant to any healthcare 
 
facility where patients receive treatment or care. The recommendations particularly apply to 
 
acute healthcare (for example hospitals), primary care (for example health centres, clinics, 
 
treatment centres etc) and specialist healthcare facilities (for example mental health 
 
trusts).
 
2.8 The use of these recommendations in community home settings (those covered by Health 
 
Technical Memorandum 88 – ‘Fire precautions in housing providing NHS-supported living in 
 
the community’) may be regarded as optional, as such premises will usually comprise private 
 
dwellings with between two and five clients living together with or without NHS carer 
 
support. As such premises are more closely related to a private dwelling, the provision of 
 
items complying with these recommendations cannot be mandatory. However, those responsible 
 
may wish to complete an assessment of the risk, taking into account the abilities or 
 
characteristics of the occupants. The use of items meeting these recommended performance 
 
levels may be deemed as necessary to reduce the perceived risk.
 
2.9 The guidance may be relevant to those premises  or parts of buildings referred to as 
 
“patient hotels”.
All such premises or parts of premises will contain many of the items covered by this Health 
 
Technical Memorandum, and healthcare organisations may consider that the methods of test and 
 
related performance requirements in this document are appropriate for patient hotels. Some 
 
adjustment to the performance levels recommended here may be desirable.
 
2.10 The provisions contained in this Health Technical Memorandum recognise those contained 
 
in Health Technical Memorandum 05-01 – ‘Managing healthcare fire safety’.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fire safety in healthcare premises
 
2.11 The Department for Communities and Local Government’s (DCLG) ‘Fire safety risk 
 
assessment
– healthcare premises’ provides guidance on fire  risk assessments in all healthcare 
 
premises. It has been produced in support of the Regulatory  Reform (Fire Safety) Order 
 
2005. Fire risk assessments using the guidance in the document are required to comply with 
 
the provisions of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005, and required that the 
 
organisation/employer be in possession of an assessment of the fire risk.
 
2.12 In the specific case of those areas of a healthcare facility to which patients have 
 
access either with or without supervision, they include all areas containing escape routes 
 
used by patients.
 
2.13 It is becoming increasingly common for large sections of the hospital to now be devoted 
 
to commercial enterprises, usually under the control of organisations other than the 
 
healthcare trust. Such enterprises can introduce risks/hazards into the hospital area and 
 
are subject to other guidance (see Health Technical Memorandum 05-03: Part D
– ‘Commercial enterprises on healthcare premises’
 
(formerly ‘Fire Practice Note 5’)). Given the wide- ranging occupancies of such 
 
enterprises, it is considered appropriate for the performance criteria for products covered 
 
by this Health Technical Memorandum to be also applied to those products provided in all 
 
such commercial enterprises (see paragraphs 4.6–4.8).
 
2.14 Within this document, the references to “high risk” or “high hazard” refer to 
 
furniture and furnishings used in accommodation for the following groups:
 
? the elderly;
 
? people with learning difficulties;
 
? young people with disabilities;
 
? medium secure and secure premises for people with mental health problems.
 
2.15 The standards referenced within this document may not be high enough for those areas 
 
where NHS patients are being cared for in premises managed by the National Offender 
 
Management Service (NOMS). Additional guidance should be sought from NOMS for these 
 
premises.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3 Burning of textiles
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
3.1 Flammable textile materials are readily decomposed by the application of heat. Because 
 
they are mostly used in the form of thin sheets, they can be ignited by short contact with a 
 
small ignition source, and burning spreads rapidly. Materials which form gaseous 
 
decomposition products tend to burn upwards with a flame which increases in speed
and intensity. The material tends to burn away completely, exposing any underlying material. 
 
The heat from burning textile materials may also act as a secondary ignition source which 
 
can ignite other materials which may not have ignited with the initial small ignition 
 
source.
 
3.2 Burning apparel fabrics will usually produce sufficient heat to cause severe skin burns. 
 
Some of these materials may be thermoplastic and melt on the application of heat. If the 
 
material forms a hole, it exposes the underlying material to the effect of the primary 
 
ignition source. Molten drops may separate and fall down from the material; if these drops 
 
are flaming, they may ignite other materials.
 
3.3 The main hazard from burning textile materials arises from the build-up and transfer of 
 
heat. In the case of apparel, large areas of the skin can be damaged if clothing is ignited 
 
by a small ignition source, such as a match flame. In the case of furnishing fabrics the 
 
heat could be transferred to other materials, enabling a small ignition source to
develop into a major fire. The combustion products of all materials are toxic and 
 
irritating, and when large quantities of material burn in a confined space the atmosphere 
 
becomes lethal. Some textile materials are more flammable than others.  Attempts have been 
 
made to classify the flammability behaviour of textiles by fibre type.
 
3.4 However, the actual classification may depend on other factors related either to the 
 
test procedure or to the fabric construction. The choice of
flammability test conditions and performance levels can influence the classification. 
 
Burning behaviour is influenced by the position and intensity of the
 
ignition source, the availability of oxygen supply, and the test specimen orientation in the 
 
test employed.
 
3.5 The performance levels set and the terms used to describe the different classes may 
 
therefore not be consistent from one standard to another. Fabric factors which affect 
 
flammability include fabric weight and surface construction. In general, the lighter the 
 
weight of the material, the more easily it is ignited and the more rapidly it burns. Thus, 
 
different weights of cotton and thermoplastic fibres, for instance, can be rated as slow-
 
burning, flammable, or highly flammable.
 
3.6 Pile fabrics and those with a brushed or raised surface tend to burn very rapidly. If 
 
the base fabric burns at a high speed, the material may be considered as unsuitable for 
 
apparel use. If the material exhibits surface flash, defined as rapid spread of flame over 
 
the surface of a material without ignition of its basic structure, the flame
is usually so weak that it is unlikely to cause any burning damage.
 
3.7 Materials which surface-flash may be used for apparel, but they should be kept away from 
 
sources of flame.
 
3.8 Thermoplastic fibres, which melt on the application of a flame, may not ignite or may 
 
give only limited flame spread. However, thermoplastic fibres melt and expose the skin, 
 
which can cause contact-burn injury or ignite other underlying materials. They are liable to 
 
give very erratic burning behaviour but normally are classed as of low or reduced 
 
flammability.
 
3.9 The burning behaviour of fabrics made from blends of fibres, or of composites made from 
 
different materials, cannot be predicted from tests of the separate materials. In 
 
particular,
thermoplastic fibres burn more readily if supported by non-melting materials which provide a 
 
so-called scaffold effect. The flammability of various fibre types can be modified by the 
 
presence of certain textile finishes (anti-soil, anti-crease, easy-iron).
 
 
 
 
 
 
3.10 Flame-retardant treatments are used to reduce flammability, but other treatments or 
 
finishes may increase flammability. Grease and soil acquired during use can also affect the 
 
flammability properties, as can the cleansing procedures used to remove them. Fibres which 
 
give only restricted flame spread are normally divided into two types:
 
a. inherently flame-retardant fibres in which the properties are a feature of the fibre 
 
structure;
b. 
flame-retardant-treated fibres which contain a flame-retardant which is added at the fibre 
 
extrusion or fabric finishing stage.
 
3.11 Special fibres have been developed which not only restrict the spread of flame but 
 
resist decomposition on contact with flame, and these are mainly used for specialist 
 
protective clothing and equipment.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4 Furniture
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
4.1 This chapter deals with furniture in wards and other hospital or healthcare areas to 
 
which patients may have access. It also deals with staff and
public areas (including those areas occupied by commercial undertakings on healthcare 
 
premises) whether or not patients have access.
 
4.2 Upholstered furniture and furnishings intended for domestic use in a dwelling currently 
 
have
to meet levels of ignition resistance set by the Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) 
 
Regulations 1988 (as amended). The fire-safety standards recommended in this Health 
 
Technical Memorandum for furniture in healthcare premises provide, at least, the same fire-
 
safety standards as these regulations.
 
4.3 In achieving the performance levels recommended here, chemical flame-retardant 
 
treatments may be used. A degree of controversy surrounds the use of such chemicals, but it 
 
is generally considered that the advantages of the improved performance they provide far 
 
outweigh any disadvantages. The question of suitable treatments and the required durability 
 
is dealt with in Chapter 11.
 
4.4 Most of the items covered in this chapter will be subjected to heavy use in their normal 
 
life. Wear and tear will inevitably lead to cover fabrics on furniture in particular being 
 
worn/torn, thus exposing the filling materials. Unfortunately, in certain areas such as 
 
waiting rooms they may also be subjected to a degree of malicious damage.
 
4.5 If the cover fabric is damaged and the filling material is exposed, they should be 
 
repaired as soon as possible. This is particularly the case where the seating is built-in. 
 
Any individual piece of furniture should be withdrawn from use until repairs can be made.
 
Commercial enterprises on hospital premises
 
4.6 While the provisions of Health Technical Memorandum 05-03: Part D – ‘Commercial 
 
enterprises on hospital premises’ cover the general fire safety measures of these types of 
 
premises, the extent of such facilities has increased significantly in recent years. In many 
 
hospitals today, the nature of commercial enterprises is extensive and often centred on the 
 
provision of refreshments. In some major hospitals, large areas are dedicated to this 
 
service and will therefore contain upholstered seating and other textiles in the form of 
 
floor coverings, curtains and drapes to create an attractive ambience.
 
4.7 Where such premises exist, the healthcare organisation should impose on the service 
 
provider the same fire behaviour requirements on all such items as they would accept if they 
 
had direct control or were providing the items themselves.
 
4.8 The recommendations contained in this Health Technical Memorandum are therefore 
 
considered appropriate for all such items used in healthcare premises.
 
Storage furniture
 
4.9 This type of furniture is usually made of wood or from wood-based products such as 
 
particleboard and is relatively difficult to ignite. However, it can contribute 
 
significantly to a fire once it is ignited, possibly by being adjacent to burning textiles 
 
such as curtains or drapes. Care taken with both the amount of such furniture used and its 
 
positioning can reduce this possibility.
 
Fixed or mobile screens
 
4.10 Greater privacy may be provided for patients in areas such as multi-bed wards or 
 
treatment areas by the provision of screens or carcass furniture. Fire spread over such 
 
surfaces is controlled by providing materials or products that meet a given
 
 
 
 
 
 
performance level in tests appropriate to the materials or products involved.
 
4.11 As these screens or furniture may be considered to be related to lining materials, they 
 
should meet the same classification of performance. The national performance ratings of such 
 
materials or products are listed in Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. The 
 
performance given is in accordance with BS EN 13501-1.
 
4.12 The Department for Communities and Local Government, in transposing the performance 
 
levels of the Euroclass System (see Commission Decision 2000/147/EC as amended by Commission 
 
Decision 2003/632/EC) for Building Regulation purposes, now equates Class 0 with Euroclass 
 
B. It is recommended that all such products should now be classified to this Euroclass 
 
performance
 
Bedsteads
 
4.13 All-metal bedsteads, of which the King’s Fund type is the most common, will not 
 
present a fire hazard.
 
4.14 There may be local circumstances where a  more homely environment is desirable and 
 
bedsteads of solid timber, for example, are provided. In such circumstances, the 
 
recommendations given in paragraph 4.9 in respect of storage furniture should be observed.
 
Upholstered furniture – general
 
4.15 The upholstered elements of upholstered furniture (this includes seating, mattresses, 
 
divans, bed-bases and similar items) are considered to be a substantial risk in terms of 
 
fire. Regulations in the UK have consistently imposed basic requirements in terms of their 
 
resistance to ignition. Studies have shown that compliance with these regulations has been 
 
directly responsible for saving many lives and preventing many injuries.
 
4.16 For the purposes of the regulations, upholstered furniture is defined as seating 
 
furniture (including children’s furniture) as well as upholstered articles such as stools, 
 
pouffes, beanbags and floor cushions.
 
4.17 Recommendations on the performance of such items of furniture are contained in two 
 
British Standards:
 
? BS 7176 – ‘Specification for resistance to ignition of upholstered furniture for non- 
 
domestic seating by testing composites’;
BS 7177 – ‘Specification for resistance to ignition of mattresses, divans and bed bases’.
 
4.18 While the recommendations contained in these  two British Standards apply to hospitals 
 
and other healthcare premises, the guidance contained in this document extends, in part, 
 
these recommendations.
 
4.19 Studies conducted in the UK before the introduction of the Furniture and Furnishings 
 
(Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 (as amended) showed that the principal hazard presented by 
 
upholstered furniture was in the cellular foam fillings commonly used. On that basis, Part 1 
 
of Schedule 1 to the regulations contained an ignitability test for polyurethane foam in 
 
slab or cushion form. All the following performance levels recommended in this Health 
 
Technical
Memorandum, in terms of ignitability, are made on the assumption that the filling materials 
 
will also comply with the stated requirements of the 1988 Regulations.
 
Divans and upholstered bed-bases
 
4.20 There has been some discussion about classifying bed mattresses as medical devices. The 
 
argument is that, as medical devices, such items are not covered by the Furniture and 
 
Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 (as amended). For further comments on this 
 
discussion, see paragraphs 15.7–15.10.
 
4.21 The performance requirements given in the 1999 edition of Health Technical Memorandum 
 
87 in respect of upholstered furniture and mattresses, divans and bed-bases have now been 
 
partially superseded by the publication of European standards. These have been recognised by 
 
amendments to BS 7177.
 
4.22 BS 7177 (see Table 1) gives the recommended performance requirements for mattresses, 
 
bed-bases and divans and also provides advice on the application of hazard categories.
 
In the 1999 edition of Health Technical Memorandum 87, clause 6.19 referred to BS 7177 with 
 
the comment that the requirements of the Health Technical Memorandum are more than covered 
 
by BS 7177.
 
4.23 Any cellular foam used in divans or upholstered bed-bases, including padded headboards, 
 
should be capable of meeting the flammability requirements of the Furniture and Furnishings 
 
(Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 applied to all such products.
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Regulations also apply to furniture which is designed to be used as seating furniture as 
 
well as a bed. All parts of convertible furniture in which the seating also provides the 
 
sleeping surface should be capable of meeting the filling-material and cover- fabric 
 
requirements of the Regulations.
 
4.24 In the case of BS 7177, hospitals are classified as medium or high hazard but with an 
 
additional category of “very high hazard”, covering accommodation in certain hospital 
 
wards (for example, secure physiciatric units/wards). The performance recommended in such 
 
applications is the same as for “high risk” but allows for additional tests to be required 
 
by the specifier. The need for an increased level of performance in very high hazard areas 
 
can only be established by a local risk assessment.
 
4.25 The higher-intensity ignition source deemed necessary by this Health Technical 
 
Memorandum – that of BS 6807 ignition source 5 (20 g of newspaper equivalent) and ignition 
 
source 7 (100 g newspaper equivalent) – is not yet available as either a European or an 
 
international technical specification.
 
Upholstered furniture
 
4.26 Any item of furniture with an upholstered element (such as easy chairs and sofas, 
 
dining chairs, office chairs, typists’ chairs and built-in furniture in
 
waiting rooms) may present a risk because of the nature of the materials used in the 
 
manufacture.
 
4.27 The Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 (as amended) provide for 
 
a  basic level of resistance to ignition to be applied to
upholstered furniture. In addition, the Regulations contain a requirement for filling 
 
materials to be evaluated in a standardised manner for mass loss.  It is considered 
 
inappropriate for upholstered furniture used in healthcare premises to be of a lower 
 
standard than that imposed on domestic upholstered furniture.
 
4.28 Table 1 in BS 7176 gives the recommended performance requirements for upholstered 
 
furniture and provides advice on the application of hazard categories. Hospitals are 
 
classified as medium risk, with the qualification that sleeping accommodation in certain 
 
hospitals might be classified as high hazard. The performance requirements suggested  by BS 
 
7176 are given in Table 2.
 
4.29 The higher-intensity ignition source deemed necessary by this Health Technical 
 
Memorandum – that of BS 5852 ignition source 5 (20 g of newspaper equivalent) and ignition 
 
source 7 (100 g of newspaper equivalent) – is not yet available as either a European or an 
 
international technical specification.
 
 
 
Table 1  Mattresses, divans and bed-bases
 
Medium risk
High risk
British Standard
European Standard
British Standard
European Standard
BS 
 
7177
 
Resistant to ignition source 5 in section 2 of BS 6807.
Resistant to ignition source: 
 
Smouldering cigarette of  BS EN 597-1.
 
Resistant to ignition source: Match flame equivalent of BS EN 597-2.
BS 7177
 
Resistant to ignition source 7 in section 2 of BS 6807.
Resistant to ignition source: 
 
Smouldering cigarette of  BS EN 597-1.
 
Resistant to ignition source: Match flame equivalent of BS EN 597-2.Table 2  Upholstered 
 
furniture
 
Medium hazard
High hazard
British Standard
European Standard
British Standard
European Standard
BS 
 
7176 ignition source 0
and 5
 
Resistant to ignition source 5 in Part D of BS 5852.
Resistant to ignition source: 
 
Smouldering cigarette of  BS EN 1021-1.
 
Resistant to ignition source: Match flame equivalent of BS EN 1021-2.
BS 7176 ignition source 
 
7
 
Resistant to ignition source 7 in Part D of BS 5852.
Resistant to ignition source: 
 
Smouldering cigarette of  BS EN 1021-1.
 
Resistant to ignition source: Match flame equivalent of BS EN 1021-2.
 
 
 
 
Wheelchairs
 
4.30 The resistance to ignition of the upholstered parts of wheelchairs is covered by BS ISO 
 
7176-16, which contains requirements and test methods.
It cites ISO 8191-1&2 as the appropriate method of test, but neither of these two technical 
 
specifications have been taken up as British Standards.
 
4.31 Healthcare organisations may wish to consider this particular aspect, as in some cases 
 
the upholstered parts of a wheelchair can be substantial and it would be clearly undesirable 
 
for these parts to be ignitable by smokers’ materials.
 
4.32 It would be appropriate for such upholstered parts to be considered as upholstered 
 
furniture, and for the test standard and associated performance required of upholstered 
 
furniture to be applied to wheelchairs.
 
Scatter cushions and seat pads
 
4.33 The Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 (as amended) apply to 
 
the filling material of cushions and pads supplied for use on the seats of wooden chairs. 
 
The regulations also apply in the case where a non-foam (fibre) filling is used; either the 
 
filling or the primary cover must meet the provisions of the regulations.
 
Removable, loose or stretch covers
 
4.34 Removable covers which are supplied with the furniture are regarded as permanent covers 
 
for the purposes of the Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 (as 
 
amended). If such furniture is provided, the cover forms part of the overall fire 
 
performance characteristics of the piece of furniture. If such covers are removed, the 
 
furniture may not be capable of meeting the stipulated performance in respect of ignition. 
 
It would therefore be necessary to remove from use any such furniture while the removable 
 
cover was being cleaned or repaired. Their use is therefore not recommended.
 
4.35 While not generally recommended, if there is a positive need for loose or stretch 
 
covers, these should be capable of meeting BS 5852 ignition
 
source 1 or BS EN 1021-2 when tested over a standard grade of polyurethane foam as required 
 
by the Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 (as amended).
 
Furniture in mobile vehicles
 
4.36 It is now common for healthcare organisations to provide a mobile service, taking 
 
healthcare to users in the community for health screening etc. This may be in the form of a 
 
specially adapted vehicle or purpose-built trailer. The Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) 
 
(Safety) Regulations 1988 (as
amended) apply to upholstered furniture (including beds) supplied with new caravans. It is 
 
unlikely that a commercially available caravan would be used for this purpose, but the 
 
contents (beds, upholstered furniture, curtains and drapes etc) of such purpose- built 
 
mobile vehicles/trailers used by the healthcare organisation should comply with all the 
 
appropriate recommendations of this Health Technical Memorandum.
 
Polypropylene (hard-backed) chairs
 
4.37 It is recommended that where polypropylene chairs are purchased, FR (fire-resistant) 
 
polypropylene shells should be specified.
 
Totally soft play environments
 
4.38 Although not furniture as such, where they are provided either as play areas for young 
 
children or as a recreation/treatment facility for adults with a disability, care needs to 
 
be taken. Large pits filled with foam off-cuts should be avoided, as should the use of raw 
 
(uncovered) foam. Cellular foam should be of the combustion-modified type, capable of 
 
meeting the Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 (as amended).
 
Upholstered garden furniture
 
4.39 Where such furniture is provided, there is always the possibility that it will be 
 
brought into the hospital and used as temporary seating. Such furniture is covered by the 
 
Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988
(as amended).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5 Furnishings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
5.1 In achieving the performance levels recommended here, chemical flame-retardant 
 
treatments may be used.  The question of suitable treatments and the required durability is 
 
dealt with in Chapter 11.
 
Curtains and drapes
 
5.2 Curtains and drapes can be considered a significant fire risk/hazard. Textile materials 
 
in the vertical orientation may burn rapidly with increasing speed as the flame spreads up 
 
and across the vertical surface. Fabrics of a lightweight construction (including nets at 
 
windows to provide privacy) may present an increased hazard, as might curtains that comprise 
 
more than a single layer. Where curtains comprise more than one layer, it cannot be assumed 
 
that the performance of the composite can be predicted from tests on the individual layers.
 
5.3 Curtains and drapes used in ward areas and public rooms/areas are often substantial in 
 
terms of their make-up (sometimes incorporating a light-proof lining etc) and size; 
 
therefore, they provide a substantial fire load. Although the anticipated ignition source 
 
may be smokers’ materials, given their position and configuration, it is more likely that 
 
they will be exposed to secondary ignition sources such as a burning waste-paper basket or 
 
other small item.
 
5.4 Curtains and drapes with “Type B” fabric should be provided as the minimum standard. 
 
In higher risk areas, “Type C” fabric should be used. On this basis, curtains and drapes 
 
should meet the test method of BS 5438 or BS 5867.
5.5 
Where products are tested to the European Standards, they should be capable of resisting 
 
ignition from larger ignition sources and should be tested in accordance with EN 1101 
 
(detailed
procedure to determine the ignitability of vertically oriented specimens (small flame)) and 
 
EN 13772 (measurement of flame spread of vertically oriented specimens with a large ignition 
 
source). This standard (EN 13772) is a refinement of the test specification contained in EN 
 
ISO 6941 in that the test procedure has been modified with a radiator which radiates on the 
 
lower part of the specimen. The combination of this radiation and the small flame 
 
application simulates the action from a larger flaming source, for example a burning waste-
 
paper basket.
 
Note
 
It is recognised that by citing both EN and British Standards, there may be room for 
 
confusion. In terms of hierarchy, the EN standards sit on a “higher plane” than the 
 
British Standards. However, the British Standard is a more rigorous standard in respect
of durability; that is, the requirement for flame retardancy to be maintained after 50 
 
washes for reusable products. This higher durability should be given due cognisance in the 
 
selection of suitable fabrics.
 
5.6 Linked to this technical testing standard, EN 13773 provides a classification scheme for 
 
fabrics for curtains and drapes when tested in accordance with EN 1101 for ignition and EN 
 
13772 for spread of flame (see Table 3).
 
 
Table 3 European classes
 
Class
Ignitability
Flame spread
1
Non ignition according to EN 1101
First marker thread not 
 
severed, no flaming debris according to EN 13772
2
Non ignition according to EN 1101
Third 
 
marker thread not severed, no flaming debris according to EN 13772
3
Non ignition according to 
 
EN 1101
Third marker thread not severed, and/or flaming debris according to EN 13772
4
Ignition 
 
according to EN 1101
Third marker thread not severed, no flaming debris according to EN 1102
5
I
 
gnition according to EN 1101
Third marker thread not severed, and/or flaming debris according 
 
to EN 1102
 
 
 
 
5.7 The test sample for both tests should be representative of the materials as used in the 
 
complete curtain or drape, for example multi- layered if used in practice. The test sample 
 
should be subjected to the cleansing procedure as detailed.
 
5.8 When the sample is tested in accordance with EN 1101, ignition – as defined in the 
 
standard –
should not occur. When tested in accordance with EN 13772, the first marker thread should 
 
not be severed and there should be no flaming debris. This performance is stated as Class 1 
 
in accordance with EN  13773.
 
Blinds
 
5.9 Blinds will normally be made of lighter materials than are curtains. They may be either 
 
roller blinds or vertical/ horizontal strip blinds. While the test standard applied to 
 
curtains and drapes is deemed to be appropriate, the performance requirement is considered 
 
too onerous.
 
5.10 Textile or roller blinds should conform to BS 5867-2 fabric type B. The appropriate
classification, when tested in accordance with EN 1101 and EN 13772, should be Class 2 in 
 
accordance with EN 13773.
 
Curtain heading tapes
 
5.11 These are available in flame-retardant fabrics and should be used wherever possible.
 
Textile floor coverings
 
5.12 Textile floor coverings present a low risk of  fire. The performance of such floor 
 
coverings is determined by EN 9239, and while such floor
coverings in healthcare premises are acknowledged as being of low risk, it is still 
 
considered appropriate that they should demonstrate a degree of resistance to fire.
 
5.13 Care should be taken when specifying floor coverings to this specification, as the test 
 
results obtained by testing the floor covering as a carpet tile cannot be taken as an 
 
indicator of the same performance if the same floor covering is in roll form. The test 
 
certificate should specifically cover the intended supply format and, if it is to be in the 
 
form of carpet tiles, the number and orientation of the joins in the tiles should be 
 
stipulated.
 
5.14 As floor coverings fall within the scope of the Construction Products Directive 
 
(89/106/EEC),
 
they are covered by Commission Decision 2000/367/EC as amended by Commission Decision 
 
2003/629/EC. The UK has applied a fire behaviour requirement to them in their specific 
 
application and their use on escape routes and staircases in public buildings. It is 
 
therefore appropriate that the same classification should
be applied to healthcare premises.
 
5.15 When tested in accordance with the provisions of EN 9239-1, textile floor coverings 
 
should be capable of providing a classification of EFL-s2.
 
5.16 It is becoming common for textile floor coverings to be used in other applications for 
 
which they were not originally intended. A soft floor covering used as a wall lining 
 
(sometimes in a lift) is often provided to create ambience or a specific effect.
It should be borne in mind that the fire behaviour and performance of floor coverings has 
 
been established with the sample in the orientation of its expected use, for example 
 
horizontal. The placing of floor coverings of the required standard in a vertical plane 
 
cannot therefore be considered acceptable.
 
5.17 The use of floor coverings as wall linings is therefore not permitted.
 
Soft toys
 
5.18 On children’s wards, there will likely be a large number of soft toys. All children’s 
 
toys in the UK are subject to regulations which specify tests for ignition and surface 
 
spread of flame. All
commercially-produced toys (soft toys, toys which a child can enter, and disguise costumes 
 
etc) will therefore comply with these requirements.
 
5.19 It is possible that well-intentioned organisations or individuals will wish to donate 
 
home-made toys to the children, and this can present difficulties. The materials used in the 
 
manufacture of such toys might not be capable of meeting the required performance. There is 
 
no way of establishing such compliance without testing, which is, of course, destructive.
 
5.20 However well-intentioned, the risk/hazard introduced into an otherwise carefully 
 
controlled environment is unacceptable. Such donations should therefore be viewed with 
 
caution and discouraged.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6 Bed assemblies
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
6.1 This chapter deals with textile bedding items used on hospital wards and other 
 
healthcare areas used by patients. It covers several different products that may be found as 
 
part of a typical bed assembly in a healthcare environment. By their nature and use, some of 
 
these items (for example pressure-relief products) may be classified as medical devices. 
 
While covered by the provisions of the Medical Devices Directive (93/42/EEC) (see Chapter 
 
15) and therefore the Medical Devices Regulations 2002 (see paragraphs 2.2–2.4), their 
 
specific performance in respect of fire behaviour should be in accordance with the 
 
recommendations contained here.
 
6.2 Care should be taken with the desired performance of bedding items where they are used 
 
in oxygen-
or nitrous-oxide-enriched atmospheres. Health Technical Memorandum 05-03: Part A – 
 
‘General fire precautions’ contains additional guidance.
 
6.3 Standards for the testing of mattresses, upholstered divans and upholstered bed-bases 
 
are contained
in EN 597-1 and EN 597-2 (see paragraphs 4.20–4.25). In addition, separate standards 
 
covering the testing of items of bedding are provided in BS EN ISO 12952.
 
6.4 Where the total make up of the bed (that is, bed- base, mattress, mattress covers and 
 
bed covers) can be specified, it is advisable to undertake a test of the whole bed assembly 
 
that will be used in practice. Such conditions would be applicable in healthcare premises or 
 
homes providing residential care.
 
6.5 As in the case of upholstered furniture, all the test methods applied to beds and 
 
bedding use the
smouldering cigarette and simulated match (small open flame). This is unlikely to provide an 
 
adequate standard for healthcare premises.
 
6.6 The “fire safety – risk assessment” guides produced by DCLG recommend that bed 
 
assemblies used in some occupancies/buildings should be resistant to
 
ignition by a smouldering cigarette (BS EN ISO 12952-1&2) and ignition source 5 (20 g 
 
newspaper equivalent) of BS 5852.
 
Bed covers
 
6.7 EN 14533 provides a classification scheme for the burning behaviour of bedding items 
 
based on two ignition sources contained in BS EN ISO 12952. The classification is applied to 
 
single bedding items and not to complete bed assemblies. It provides for three classes of 
 
performanace as shown in Table 4.
 
6.8 BS 7175 describes methods of test for the ignitability of bed covers and pillows, 
 
individually and in combination, when subjected to smouldering and flaming types of ignition 
 
sources of different severities. It is divided into five sections as follows:
 
1. general application;
 
2. pillows and continental quilts tested with smouldering and flaming ignition sources;
 
3. individual bedcovers (including mattress covers, sheets, pillowslips, blankets, 
 
bedspreads and continental quilt covers) tested with smouldering and flaming ignition 
 
sources;
 
4. composites of known bed covers and pillows tested with smouldering and flaming ignition 
 
sources;
 
5. final examination of test specimens and test reports.
 
Table 4  Burning behaviour of bedding items
 
 
 
 
 
 
6.9 The tests given in BS 7175, in common with those given in both BS 7176 and BS 7177, are 
 
now based on the available European technical standards.
BS 7175 has now, in part, been replaced by  BS EN ISO 12952-1–4 (see Appendix B). The
performances applied in BS 7176 and BS 7177 are only in respect of a smouldering source and 
 
a simulated match flame. There is no available European or international standard providing 
 
agreed larger ignition sources.
 
6.10 The scope of BS EN ISO 12952 describes specific test methods for bedding items which 
 
can normally be placed on a mattress (for further information, see paragraphs 56–60 in 
 
Appendix B).
 
6.11 Given the classification awarded in both BS 7176 and BS 7177, the same classification 
 
is extrapolated here. The test provides for the individual items to be subjected to the test 
 
procedures as well as a full composite representing the made-up bed and bedding (see Table 
 
5).
 
Pressure-relief products
 
6.12 Pressure-relief products may be found in a variety of forms (for example support aids, 
 
mattress overlays, underlays, air-filled mattresses, cushions etc). They are usually placed 
 
within a bed assembly or on a chair or wheelchair.
 
6.13 These products should meet the requirements of BS 7175 using ignition source 0 and 5. 
 
However, where there may be a conflict between fire safety and the health of the patient, 
 
discussion should take place between care staff and fire safety professionals. Decisions on 
 
the suitability of any pressure-relief products selected for use should be adequately 
 
documented in a fire risk assessment.
 
6.14 The above standards need not be applied to products used in baby cots.
 
 
Table 5  Bed assemblies
 
Medium hazard
High hazard
British Standard
European Standard
British Standard
European Standard
BS 
 
7176 and BS 7177
Resistant to ignition source:
BS 7176 and BS 7177
Resistant to ignition 
 
source:
ignition source 0 and 5
Smouldering cigarette of
ignition source 7
Smouldering cigarette 
 
of
Resistant to ignition source 5
BS EN ISO 12952-1 & 2
Resistant to ignition source 7
BS EN ISO 
 
12952-1 & 2
in Part D of BS 5852
Resistant to ignition source:
in Part D of BS 5852
Resistant to 
 
ignition source:
 
Match flame equivalent of
 
Match flame equivalent of
 
BS EN ISO 12952-3 & 4
 
BS EN 
 
ISO 12952-3 & 4
 
 
 
 
 
 
7 Apparel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
7.1 This is a complex area. While it is generally accepted that in acute wards patients will 
 
normally be dressed in nightclothes (pyjamas, nightdresses and dressing-gowns), in other 
 
long-stay hospitals they would be expected to be in normal day clothes. In both instances, 
 
it will usually be the patient’s own clothing that will be worn, and the necessary 
 
laundering etc is likely to be undertaken by the patient’s family.
 
7.2 Little can be done in respect of the fire behaviour of all such clothing. However, in 
 
the case where the hospital or other healthcare service provides the garments, a degree of 
 
safety can be achieved.
 
7.3 Items of nightwear are covered by the Nightwear (Safety) Regulations 1985 and the 
 
Nightwear (Safety) (Amendment) Regulations 1987. The regulations require nightwear to be 
 
appropriately labelled (for example “Keep away from fire”).
 
7.4 Such requirements do not recognise that, in many instances, such garments could be 
 
home-made, or that older children may be wearing non-compliant adult nightwear. Under such 
 
circumstances there  is little that can be achieved. It is impractical
for hospital staff to check all such garments on admission, as in the case of long-stay 
 
patients this could be an ongoing requirement.
 
7.5 The basic provision, therefore, in the case where garments are provided by the hospital 
 
or other service provider, is that garments must conform to the current regulations. Gifts 
 
or donations of
garments that cannot be so identified should not be used.
 
7.6 Additionally, certain material constructions give rise to the phenomenon of rapid 
 
surface burning or surface-flash when tested in accordance with EN 1103. Such garments 
 
(usually dressing-gowns) include cotton or other fabrics with a raised (pile) surface. The 
 
use of such garments should be discouraged. If such a garment is provided by the
 
patient themselves, they should be offered the use of another dressing-gown provided by the 
 
hospital.
 
7.7 The Nightwear (Safety) Regulations and the Nightwear (Safety) (Amendment) Regulations 
 
apply to garments supplied as nightwear, and to garments supplied otherwise than for 
 
nightwear but which are similar in nature and commonly worn as nightwear, for example:
 
? bathrobes;
 
? negligées; and
 
? snuggle wraps.
 
7.8 While it is unlikely that negligées would be either supplied or worn in a hospital, 
 
there is every possibility that bathrobes and even snuggle wraps could be worn or provided 
 
by the hospital. In the case of older people who are long-stay patients, snuggle wraps might 
 
be worn in day-rooms.
 
7.9 The flammability performance of the regulations relates to the whole area of the garment 
 
including threads, trimmings, decorations and labels. This should be borne in mind where 
 
repairs are carried out on the premises.
 
7.10 Nightwear made and trimmed with synthetic fibres which melt without decomposing when 
 
ignited
as part of the BS test can be taken to meet the flammability performance requirements.
 
7.11 The regulations cite the test specifications of BS 5722, which in turn cites BS 5438. 
 
As the regulations are still in force, the only means of
demonstrating compliance is to test using these two technical standards. There can be no 
 
other method of test while the regulations are extant.
 
7.12 For all other applications for apparel items,
EN 1103 would be the appropriate method of test. The European Commission (Directorate-
 
General for Health and Consumer Protection) recently  gave a study mandate to CEN to 
 
complete
an investigation on the need for technical specifications for fire behaviour at the European 
 
level. This was followed by a standardisation
 
 
 
 
 
mandate, and a draft technical specification
prEN 14878 covering nightwear has been produced and is currently being formally considered 
 
by CEN members.
 
7.13 This European technical specification requires that EN 1103 be used to evaluate the 
 
fire behaviour of nightwear. The ignition test specified is BS EN ISO 6941. Once prEN 14878 
 
is published, the UK may consider the future status of the current regulations. Until this 
 
happens and a decision is made, healthcare organisations must continue to use only the 
 
methods of test cited in the current regulations.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8 Disposables
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sheets, pillowslips, drapes and bibs
 
8.1 Disposable or non-woven products are available for many end-use applications, and the 
 
quality now available makes them attractive to healthcare organisations as they can be used 
 
in an emergency when supplies of conventional items are  interrupted. They must be used with 
 
caution because they can present a higher fire risk than reusable textiles, as it is 
 
difficult to have disposable products with FR properties. As far as reasonably practical, 
 
their use should be kept to a minimum, and they should not be used regularly as a matter of 
 
course to reduce maintenance costs.
 
8.2 Particular care and observance of fire precautions is recommended where these types of 
 
product are used or stored. Large numbers of these products should not be stored in the ward 
 
areas, and
further guidance is given in Health Technical Memorandum 05-03: Part A – ‘General fire 
 
precautions’.
 
Curtains
 
8.3 A number of suppliers now offer disposable cubicle curtains. These lightweight curtains 
 
are easy to take down and are maintenance-free. It is claimed that
 
they help to eliminate cross-contamination and are ideal for critical care units, burns 
 
units or anywhere where cubicle curtains must be changed frequently.
 
8.4 Made from non-woven polypropylene material, it is claimed that they are 100% flame-
 
retardant. Many of these products originate from the USA, although UK suppliers may offer 
 
these to healthcare organisations. The claims as to their flame- retardance treatment and 
 
subsequent claimed performance should be treated with caution.
 
8.5 If their use is being contemplated in any healthcare application, the method of test 
 
used to determine the claimed performance should be established. It is also important to 
 
establish the means by which the stated performance has been achieved. The flame- retardant 
 
chemicals used in the USA may not meet the requirements imposed by European legislation. 
 
They should meet the same flame-retardant requirements as for reusable curtains (for example 
 
BS 5867); however, the durability (50 washes) is not necessary due to their disposable 
 
nature. As  part of the fire-retardant test procedures though, they should be subjected to a 
 
water-soaking procedure.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
9.1 In most instances, the product (for example furniture and nightwear) in use will carry 
 
the label as required by the current national regulations.
As most of the performance requirements given in this Health Technical Memorandum are above 
 
the minimum requirements, the products will not carry any label.
 
9.2 All textiles, furniture and furnishings covered by this Health Technical Memorandum 
 
should be clearly and durably labelled, or marked according to the individual contract 
 
requirements.
 
9.3 It would be appropriate for suppliers to fix such labels to their products confirming 
 
that they provide compliance to the specified technical specification.
 
9.4 The label should include advice on any special precautions that are necessary concerning 
 
care and cleansing, taking into account the durability procedure used/specified.
 
9.5 Where furniture or furnishings or any other product within the scope of this Health 
 
Technical Memorandum is reupholstered or repaired,
only materials that comply with the original performance recommendations should be used.
A new label that confirms this should be provided by the repairer.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10 Cleansing
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
10.1 This chapter primarily relates to fabrics which have been chemically treated to impart 
 
flame retardance (FR). It does not give detailed laundry-process instructions. It is 
 
included as information for all those concerned with the selection, purchase and care of 
 
textiles and textile items, to illustrate the laundering process for those fabrics.
 
10.2 As there are many variations in the types of washing and finishing equipment in 
 
commercial and hospital laundries, individual linen service and laundry managers will 
 
formulate the appropriate washing processes which should be followed to retain the FR 
 
effectiveness of chemically-treated fabrics.
 
10.3 Where appropriate, records should be maintained to allow for effective monitoring and 
 
audit of the care and cleansing of chemically-treated items. This should include the loading 
 
factor expressed as the ratio of dry load (kg) to net cage volume.
 
Flame-retardant cotton fabrics
 
Loading factor
 
10.4 The normal loading factor (1:12) for cotton articles is satisfactory, but white and 
 
coloured fabrics should not be washed in the same load.
 
Wash
 
10.5 Generally a two-wash process will be satisfactory.
This means a break-wash or pre-wash to remove surface soiling and a second wash or main wash 
 
at a higher temperature to remove more resistant soiling and to achieve thermal 
 
disinfection.
 
Break-wash (first wash)
 
10.6 Net washing time five minutes at a recommended maximum temperature of 40°C at a high 
 
dip (liquor ratio 1:10 – liquor ratio is defined as the ratio of dry load (kg) to total 
 
volume of water (litres)).
 
Second wash (main wash)
 
10.7 Net washing time ten minutes at the recommended loading factor of 1:12 at a low dip 
 
(liquor ratio 1:4) and at a maximum temperature of 75°C ± 2°C.
 
Wash materials
 
10.8 To minimise the risk of masking the FR properties by insoluble lime soaps, a synthetic, 
 
preferably non-ionic, detergent is recommended. BS EN ISO 15797 gives the appropriate 
 
industrial detergent formulation.
 
10.9 Sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) bleach should not be used as it will destroy the 
 
imparted FR properties.
 
10.10 Starch or other additives should not be used as they will mask the FR properties.
 
Rinse/extraction
 
10.11 When washing with a synthetic detergent, three rinses should be adequate.
 
Fabrics from synthetic fibres
 
10.12 Fabrics of this type, such as modacrylic and polyester, are of low fire hazard level.
 
10.13 These types of fabrics are not affected by the laundering processes that are 
 
recommended for synthetic fibres, but care must be taken in the finishing of modacrylic 
 
fibres.
 
10.14 Generally they are unsuitable for calendering, and excessively high temperatures must 
 
be avoided during tumble-drying.
 
Dry-cleaning
 
10.15 Dry-cleaning solvents do not mask or degenerate FR properties. Cleaning of such 
 
items/garment should be carried out according to the care label.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
11.1 The fire behaviour of textile end-use applications, including furniture and 
 
furnishings, used in both domestic dwellings and public buildings, is of considerable 
 
importance. The fire hazard/risk of these materials, and the smoke and toxic gases produced 
 
by their combustion, cannot be entirely reduced or contained by operational means, such as 
 
improved methods of escape, fire detection or smoke extraction.
 
11.2 There is no truly flame-proof textile. The best that can be achieved is a resistance to 
 
ignition by specific sources such as smouldering cigarettes or
small open flames (equivalent to a match) or larger flames (single burning item such as a 
 
waste-paper basket). In a number of limited applications, certain natural fibres (for 
 
example wool) can demonstrate an inherent natural ability in terms of certain fire 
 
behaviour, such as resistance to ignition. Other man-made fibres (for example flame- 
 
retardant polyester) can also provide modified fire behaviour, such as ignition resistance 
 
or a reduction in surface burning.
 
11.3 It would be normal practice in the light of such a requirement for some textile fabrics 
 
to be treated with a flame-retardant chemical to achieve the required performance. This can 
 
be done either by applying chemicals to the fibres before processing into a textile, or by 
 
applying to the textile fabric at an appropriate stage during manufacture.
 
11.4 In some cases, the nature of such chemicals is controversial and their use may be 
 
deprecated. Following a risk assessment, the European Parliament’s Environment Committee 
 
introduced an EU marketing-and-use ban on the brominated flame-retardant “pentaBDE”. This 
 
has now been widened to cover other related controversial substances in the same chemical 
 
group.
11.5 
Textile end-use applications should not present any health hazard arising from the chemical 
 
properties of the fabric(s) from which they were made.  Neither should there be any health 
 
hazard from any substances or preparations used to treat or coat any textile.
 
11.6 Specifically, the toxic and eco-toxic aspects of chemical flame-retardant treatments 
 
when applied to any textile end-use application may need to be considered. One specific 
 
principle that may be considered is that only those flame-retardant substances and 
 
preparations that the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Health and Environment 
 
Risks (SCHER) has evaluated can be used.
 
11.7 The standardisation mandate (M304) given to CEN to prepare technical standard methods 
 
of test for adult and children’s nightwear recognises that certain flame-retardant 
 
treatments can be considered acceptable.
 
Durability
 
11.8 In achieving both the recommended fire behaviour and flame-retardant performance 
 
discussed in this guidance, chemical treatments may therefore be applied to the textiles. 
 
Such treatments must perform the task for which they are applied for the normal life of the 
 
fabric; they therefore must be durable.
 
11.9 Any normal routine washing or cleansing procedures (see Chapter 10) applied to garments 
 
or to fabrics (such as beds and bedding, curtains, upholstered furniture etc) that have been 
 
treated in any way should be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions 
 
contained on the care label on the garment or product.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section B – Supporting information
 
 
 
 
 
 
12 The Keymark – the CEN/CENELEC mark of conformity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12.1 The Keymark, also called CEN European Mark, is a voluntary third-party certification 
 
mark providing assurance that a product complies with specified requirements of the relevant 
 
European Standard(s) issued by CEN.
 
12.2 The Keymark is only licensed for use in combination with the marks of existing national 
 
certification systems (for example the BSI Kitemark and schemes demonstrating conformity of 
 
products with CEN standards and operated by empowered certification bodies).
 
12.3 It is a sign of “Europeanisation” of the national marks and in some cases it 
 
constitutes a step to harmonising the national certification schemes and marks. It improves 
 
confidence in the national marks of all countries concerned and acceptance of the equal 
 
quality of the national certification schemes.
 
12.4 Given that the UK Government is supportive of the scheme, healthcare organisations may 
 
wish to consider their position in this respect. If products were to be offered that carry 
 
the Keymark, it might be considered an advantage.
 
12.5 Once a product is tested and certified to obtain the Keymark in one country, there 
 
should be no need for retesting in other countries participating in the scheme. The 
 
manufacturers and retailers should therefore be able to effectively market their products 
 
Europe-wide. The Keymark also acts
as a market-opener, a key to the single market.
 
Consumers and users will be confident that it addresses all the social concerns which are 
 
defined in a European Standard, and that it will be recognised in Europe by those with an 
 
interest
in requirements relating to safety, health and environmental  protection.
 
12.6 The Keymark can be applied for by manufacturers (and importers), and retailers in 
 
collaboration with manufacturers. In this respect the mark aims to provide sufficient value 
 
so that retailers/ manufacturers can effectively market their products. Governments, in the 
 
framework of EU directives such as the General Product Safety Directive (2001/95/EC) and in 
 
the framework of recommendations such as those relating to mutual recognition, are expected 
 
to rely on the Keymark
as evidence that the products concerned are suitable for use, taking into account all the 
 
established requirements of the reference standard(s). It is possible that manufacturers in 
 
other parts of Europe will offer the Keymark in support of a tender to supply a healthcare 
 
organisation with their products.
 
12.7 The Keymark should not be confused with the CE Mark (see Chapter 18), which is a 
 
mandatory declaration from the manufacturer/supplier that
the product fulfils and demonstrates respect for the essential requirements of the relevant 
 
EU directives.
 
12.8 Consumers support a single European mark, which has to fulfil specific requirements 
 
such as third- party testing and precise information to provide transparency on safety, 
 
performance and environmental aspects of the product.
 
12.9 The Keymark delivers products to the European market with the required confidence using 
 
the fewest possible resources.
 
12.10 In principle, the basic components of the scheme are:
 
? proof of conformity of the product(s) against the CEN European Standard(s), taking account
 
 
 
 
 
 
of, if applicable, the specific rules approved by the CEN Certification Board;
 
? initial conformity assessment, especially by type testing and evaluation of the factory 
 
product control of the manufacturer, taking into account the elements of the BS EN ISO 9000 
 
series;
 
? decisions on certification and licensing, including maintenance, extension, suspension and 
 
withdrawal;
 
? periodic surveillance.
 
How does it work?
 
12.11 The precondition for establishing a Keymark scheme is a set of relevant requirements 
 
in the CEN European Standard(s) to which conformity can be evaluated.
12.12 
If national marks (or a national mark) exist, granted on the basis of national standards 
 
transposing the European standards involved, the CEN Certification Board can decide, after 
 
evaluation, on the acceptance of the existing national schemes as conforming to the Keymark
requirements and allow the Keymark to be licensed for use in combination with those national 
 
marks.
 
12.13 To obtain the Keymark, the manufacturer must submit the application to a certification 
 
body empowered for the scheme relevant for his/her products. Attention is drawn to the fact 
 
that his/ her choice implies also the choice of the national mark in combination with which 
 
the Keymark is granted. The descriptions and documentation pertaining to the product to be 
 
provided by the manufacturer may, at least in detail, vary from country to country.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13 Eco-labels and textile end-use applications
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13.1 As in the case of the Keymark scheme (see
Chapter 12), the UK Government is supportive of eco-labels, and a request to 
 
manufacturers/suppliers to conform to the provisions required to use eco- labels may be 
 
considered desirable.
 
13.2 The basic aim of the original Council Regulation (880/92/EEC of 23 March 1992 on a 
 
Community eco-label award scheme) was for a voluntary and selective Community eco-label 
 
award scheme,
and this is carried over in the later, replacement European regulations. The award scheme 
 
should provide guidance to specifiers/ consumers
on products with a potential for reducing environmental impact when viewed through its 
 
entire life-cycle. It should provide information on the environmental characteristics of 
 
labelled products.
 
13.3 Such provisions are supported by the UK Government generally, and healthcare 
 
organisations may wish to confirm this by recommending that products, where possible, should 
 
be able to demonstrate compliance with the principles concerned.
 
Regulation (EC) No 1980/2000 of
17 July 2000 on a revised Community eco-label award scheme
 
13.4 The initial proposal for the Community eco-label was made in Council Regulation 
 
880/92/EEC.
It provided for a review after five years, and thus Regulation (EC) No 1980/2000 was 
 
consequently published in July 2000. The current regulations are the basis for the eco-label 
 
award scheme being extant today.
 
13.5 The use of the Commission eco-label is optional.
There are no mandatory requirements for a manufacturer to provide the eco-label, but if they 
 
so choose, they must follow the provisions of the relevant Commission decision.
 
13.6 The provisions of this regulation refer to Council Directive 67/548/EEC, which preceded 
 
the
 
1999/45/EC Directive. It is under the 67/548/EEC Directive that certain flame-retardant 
 
chemical substances are classified as harmful to the environment.
 
13.7 The scheme could be applied to most of the products covered by this guidance. For the 
 
purposes of the regulations, the term “product” is taken to include any goods or services. 
 
The Community
eco-label may be awarded to products available in the Community which comply with the 
 
essential environmental requirements of Article 3 of the regulations.
 
13.8 The specific application of the scheme is detailed in a series of formal Commission 
 
decisions, individual to the various “product” groups; there are two such decisions 
 
relevant to healthcare organisations. Each such decision has a maximum life of five years. 
 
The regulation under which these decisions are made does not have a specific life-span of 
 
application.
 
Commission  Decision  2002/371/EC of 15 May 2002 establishing the ecological criteria for 
 
the award of the Community eco-label to textile products
 
13.9 To be covered by this decision, a textile product must fall within the scope of Article 
 
2, which stipulates that textile products shall comprise:
 
? textile clothing and accessories;
 
? interior textiles for interior uses (wall and ceiling coverings are not included).
 
13.10 In the annex to the decision, fibre-specific criteria are set out for a number of 
 
major textile groups. The annex also covers the use of dyes, coatings and finishes including 
 
flame-retardants.
 
13.11 No use is allowed of flame-retardant substances or of flame-retardant preparations 
 
containing more than 0.1% by weight of substances that are assigned or may be assigned at 
 
the time of
 
 
 
 
 
 
application of any of the following risk phases (or combinations thereof ):
 
R40 (limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect); R45 (may cause cancer);
R46 (may cause heritable genetic damage); R49 (may cause cancer by inhalation); R50 (very 
 
toxic to aquatic organisms);  R51 (toxic to aquatic organisms);
R52 (harmful to aquatic organisms);
 
R53 (may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment);
 
R60 (may impair fertility);
 
R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child); R62 (possible risk of impaired fertility);
R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child);
 
R68 (possible risk of irreversible effects). This requirement does not apply to flame 
 
retardants that, on application, change their
chemical nature to no longer warrant classification under any of the  R-Phrases listed 
 
above, and where less than 0.1% of the flame retardant on the treated yarn or fabric remains 
 
in the form as before application.
 
As laid down in Council Directive 67/548/EEC and its subsequent amendments.
 
Commission  Decision  2002/740/EC  of 3 September 2002 establishing revised ecological 
 
criteria for the award of the Community eco-label to bed mattresses
 
13.12 The product group here comprises:
 
? Bed mattresses
(This definition includes products providing a surface to sleep or rest on, consisting of a 
 
strong cloth cover filled with materials that can be placed on an existing supporting bed 
 
structure. This includes framed sprung mattresses, which are defined as an upholstered bed-
 
base consisting of springs, topped by fillings, on a rigid frame to be used as a bed frame 
 
or free- standing, combined with a mattress pad which is not intended to be used 
 
separately.)
 
13.13 This Commission decision refers to Decision 2002/371/EC (see paragraphs 13.9–13.11) 
 
relating to textiles. It, by a direct reference, refers to the use of flame retardants in 
 
the manufacture of mattresses.
 
 
 
 
 
 
14 General Product Safety Directive 2001/95/EC of 3 December 2001
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Introduction
 
14.1 It is this single directive that has the most significant impact on the recommendations 
 
contained in this Health Technical Memorandum. Based on the single premise that all products 
 
must be “safe”, manufacturers and specifiers are obliged to take this definition and the 
 
implication that what is safe can only be determined by the application of published 
 
European technical specifications (or the national provisions transposing them into national 
 
standards)
and apply it to their products.
 
14.2 There are profound implications, and these are considered in some detail here. One 
 
important aspect to be considered initially is that the General Product Safety Directive 
 
does not cover “services”. While it could be argued that certain occupancies such as 
 
healthcare or care homes are a service industry, other important provisions of the directive 
 
could be applicable.
 
14.3 In order to secure the attainment of the protection objectives it contains for the 
 
consumer, certain provisions of the directive are applied to products that are supplied or 
 
made available to consumers in the context of service provision for use by them. On this 
 
basis, it is suggested that in the case of healthcare premises or a care home, for instance, 
 
the products such as furniture, beds, curtains
and drapes etc are products made available in the context of a service provision. The 
 
provisions of the directive will therefore apply to all such products.
 
14.4 In publishing the 2001/95/EC Directive, the Commission has, effectively, achieved two 
 
things:
 
(i) it has provided for the future protection of consumers within the European Union;
 
(ii) it has provided a framework which binds the Commission itself to a certain course of 
 
action in achieving (i) above.
 
14.5 The obligation is placed on the manufacturer to only supply “safe” goods. By 
 
definition, any
 
product that does not meet the requirements imposed is deemed to be “unsafe”. This can 
 
have serious implications for manufacturers where technical specifications exist at the 
 
European level and whose product does not meet any appropriate performance requirements when 
 
tested to the relevant specification standard.
 
A “safe” product
 
14.6 A product may also be deemed safe when, in the absence of specific Community 
 
provisions, it conforms to the specific rules of national law of the member state.
 
14.7 Additionally, a product may also be deemed safe when it conforms to voluntary national 
 
standards transposing European standards, the references to which have been published by the 
 
Commission in the Official Journal of the European Union.
 
14.8 In circumstances where either of the above two provisions do not apply, the conformity 
 
of the product is to be assessed by taking into account the following elements, where they 
 
exist:
 
? voluntary national standards transposing relevant European standards;
 
? the standards drawn up in the member state;
 
? Commission recommendations setting guidelines on product safety assessment;
 
? product safety codes of good practice;
 
? state-of-the-art and technology;
 
? reasonable consumer expectations concerning safety.
 
14.9 To evaluate the above provisions, therefore, the thrust of future effort to secure a 
 
satisfactory position regarding EN-published technical standards could therefore be along 
 
the following lines:
 
? with regard to standards that have been published in response to a formal standardisation 
 
mandate from the Commission,
 
 
 
 
 
 
the current state of the art would allow the publication of further technical standards 
 
(ENs) or at the very least a pre-norm (ENV);
 
? where there are reasonable consumer expectations for safety in this area.
 
Application
 
14.10 Within any building providing a service occupancy, many products will be incorporated 
 
or provided either for the comfort and convenience of the occupants/guests or specifically 
 
to provide a degree of safety in the case of fire.
 
14.11 Within the provisions of the 2001/95/EC Directive, the contribution of harmonised 
 
European technical standards and national standards transposing the European standards is 
 
recognised. Under Whereas Clause 14, this procedure is acknowledged as an effective and 
 
consistent application of the general safety requirement of the directive.
 
14.12 By far the most significant risk in any building, particularly healthcare, is posed by 
 
the contents. Whether they be in the form of furnishings provided in public areas – lounge, 
 
dining room, reception areas – or in individual wards/bedrooms, these products are usually 
 
the items first ignited or mainly responsible for the fire.
 
14.13 Some member states have recognised the contribution to the risk of fire of such 
 
products by introducing national regulations covering upholstered furniture. In the UK, the 
 
original national regulations are applicable to domestic upholstered furniture and 
 
nightwear, but these
basic provisions in respect of upholstered furniture have been extended by other guidance 
 
documents issued by the member state government to public buildings.
 
14.14 Looking at the basic provisions of the 2001/95/EC Directive, there are a number of 
 
fundamental considerations that have to be made in connection with fire safety.
 
14.15 Within Whereas Clause 6, it is stated:
“This Directive has been introduced as it has been considered necessary to establish at 
 
Community level a general safety requirement for any product placed on the market, or 
 
otherwise supplied or made available to consumers, intended for consumers, or likely to be 
 
used by consumers under reasonably foreseeable conditions even if it is not intended for 
 
them. In all these cases the products under consideration can pose
 
risks for the health and safety of consumers which must be prevented.”
 
14.16 Within Whereas Clause 9, it is stated:
“This Directive does not cover services. However, to secure the attainment of the 
 
protection objectives in question, its provisions should also apply to products that are 
 
supplied or made available to consumers in the context of service provisions for use by 
 
them.”
 
14.17 Within Whereas Clause 11 it is stated:
“In the absence of more specific conditions, within the framework of Community legislation 
 
covering safety of the products concerned, all the provisions of the Directive should apply 
 
to ensure consumer health and safety.”
 
14.18 Within Whereas Clause 14 it is stated:
“In order to facilitate the effective and consistent application of the general safety 
 
requirement of this Directive, it is important to establish European voluntary standards 
 
covering certain products and risks in such a way that a product which conforms to a 
 
national standard transposing a European standard is to be presumed to be in compliance with 
 
the said requirement.”
 
14.19 Within Whereas Clause 16 it is stated:
“In the absence of specific regulations and where European standards established under 
 
Mandates set by the Commission are not available or recourse is not made to such standards, 
 
the safety of products should be assessed taking into account in particular national 
 
standards transposing any other relevant European
or international standards, Commission recommendations or national standards, international 
 
standards, codes of practice, the state of the art and the safety which consumers may 
 
reasonably expect.”
 
14.20 In this context, the Commission’s recommendations may facilitate the consistent and 
 
effective application of this directive pending the introduction of European standards or as 
 
regards the risks and/or products for which such standards are deemed not to be possible or 
 
appropriate.
 
Definition of a “product”
 
14.21 Article 1(2) applies the provisions of the directive to all products. The definition 
 
of “product” is given under Article 2(a) as:
“Any product – including in the context of providing a service – which is intended for 
 
consumers or likely, under reasonably foreseeable conditions, to be used by consumers even 
 
if not intended for them, and is
 
 
 
 
 
 
supplied or made available, whether for consideration or not, in the course of a commercial 
 
activity, and whether new, used or reconditioned.”
 
Definition of a “safe product” and a “dangerous product”
 
14.22 Article 2(b) defines a “safe product” as:
“Any product which, under normal or reasonably foreseeable conditions of use including 
 
duration and, where applicable, putting into service, does not present any risk or only the 
 
minimum risks compatible with the product’s use, considered to
be acceptable and consistent with a high level of protection for the safety and health of 
 
persons, taking into account the following points, in particular:
 i   the characteristics of the product … ; ii   the effect on other products, where it is
reasonably foreseeable that it will be used
with other products … ;
 
 
iv  the categories of consumers at risk when using the product, in particular children and 
 
the elderly.”
 
14.23 Article 2(c) is explicit in that it defines a “dangerous product” as any product 
 
that does not meet the definition of a “safe product”.
 
Definition of a “serious risk”
 
14.24 Article 2(d) also defines serious risk as “any serious risk, including those the 
 
effects of which are not immediate, requiring rapid intervention by the public authorities”
 
.
 
14.25 Article 3(1) obliges producers to place only safe products on the market (see 
 
paragraphs 14.6–14.9).
 
 
15 Medical Devices Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Introduction
 
15.1 The connection between the generally accepted understanding of a “medical device” and 
 
fire safety may seem tenuous, but when one considers the definition given in the scope of 
 
this directive, a clear connection may be established. Article 1(2)(a) of the directive 
 
defines a medical device as “any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other 
 
article, whether used alone or in combination”. Article 1 also gives the scope as applying 
 
to medical devices and accessories, and on this basis confirms that accessories are to be 
 
treated as medical devices in their own right.
 
15.2 Article 1(2)(b) further defines an accessory as “an article which whilst not being a 
 
device is intended specifically by its manufacturer to be used together with a device to 
 
enable it to be used in accordance with the use of the device intended by the manufacturer 
 
of the device”.
 
15.3 Article 2 identifies the need to consider the safety aspects. It provides for devices 
 
to be placed on the market and put into service only if they do not compromise the safety 
 
and health of patients, users and, where applicable, other persons when properly installed, 
 
maintained and used in accordance with their intended purpose. When this is taken with a 
 
specific comment in the “whereas clauses” that the provisions of Directive 89/391/EEC (on 
 
the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers 
 
at work) should continue to apply, the full application cannot be questioned.
 
Application of the directive
 
15.4 Within Annex 1 of the directive covering essential requirements, it states that devices 
 
must be designed and manufactured in such a way that, when used under the conditions and for 
 
the purposes intended, they will not compromise the clinical condition, or the safety and 
 
health of users. This particular requirement is therefore related to the provisions of the 
 
89/391/EEC
 
Directive dealing with the health and safety of those employed to work in the building.
 
15.5 Under the requirements regarding design and construction, Clause 7.1 states that 
 
particular attention must be paid to the choice of materials used, particularly as regards 
 
toxicity and, where appropriate, flammability.
 
15.6 While it would be difficult to argue or maintain that items such as curtains, drapes or 
 
most other textile end-use applications had a “medical application”, there is a case for 
 
such a claim for certain other items, including beds and upholstered furniture claimed to 
 
have a medical application such as being specifically designed/manufactured for orthopaedic 
 
use.
 
Mattresses and bed-bases
 
15.7 There is a degree of misunderstanding about the status of mattresses placed on the 
 
market as medical devices with a CE mark of conformity and the fact that these mattresses do 
 
not have to meet the current requirements imposed by the Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) 
 
(Safety) Regulations 1988 (as amended).
 
15.8 It is the manufacturers’ decision whether their products fall within the scope of the 
 
Medical Devices Directive (93/42/EEC) and therefore the Medical Devices Regulations 2002. 
 
Manufacturers would have to be able to justify such a claim by providing evidence to support 
 
the medical claims made and to meet the relevant essential requirements, which include 
 
flammability.
 
15.9 There is no requirement from the Department of Health for any such products to be 
 
classified as a medical device.
 
15.10 For further clarification, contact the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory 
 
Agency (MHRA) (www.mhra.gov.uk).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16 ENV 14237: textiles in the healthcare system
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Introduction
 
16.1 CEN technical committee TC 248 has prepared a technical specification covering the use 
 
of textiles in healthcare. At the time of drafting this Health Technical Memorandum (2007), 
 
the technical committee has so far only published its proposed standard as a European 
 
prestandard (ENV). This has now been transposed by British Standards as a Draft for 
 
Development (DD).
 
16.2 ENV 14237 should not be regarded as a European standard; it is issued as a prestandard 
 
(ENV) because it is of a provisional nature. It is intended that the content should be 
 
applied on a provisional basis so that information and experience of its practical 
 
application may be obtained.
 
16.3 The experience so gained at the national level
will be passed to CEN for consideration when the document is formally proposed for 
 
conversion to a full European standard.
 
16.4 Clause 2 “Normative references” cites the following EN standards as being 
 
appropriate:
Table 3 – mattress protectors;
 
? Table 4 – blankets;
 
? Table 5 – towels;*
 
? Table 6 – curtains;
 
? Table 7 – patients’ clothing/baby clothing;**
 
? Table 8 – staff clothing.*
 
Note* – No flammability performance requirement.
 
Note** – Flammability performance requirement not yet determined.
 
16.7   In each case where a flammability performance is given, the requirement is simply 
 
that the item “shall not ignite”. There is the further requirement applied in that where 
 
flame-retardant properties are not inherent, the producer shall certify the durability of 
 
the treatment and the test method used.
 
Comment
 
The European prestandard provides a specification for
 
?
 
?
 
?
 
?
 
?
 
Note
 
EN 1103;
 
EN 13773;
 
EN 20139;
 
BS EN ISO 6330;
 
BS EN ISO 12952-1–4.
 
“unused” textiles in the healthcare system. However, there is confusion over what is meant 
 
by “unused” textiles. It is clear from the scope that the proposals do not apply to 
 
surgical textiles under the Medical Devices Directive (93/42/EEC), but the use of the term 
 
“unused” is confusing. Clarification from the chairman/secretary of the CEN/TC 248 
 
committee suggests it is meant to be interpreted as “new” textiles.
 
Within the document there is no definition of
 
BS EN 20139 has been superseded by BS EN ISO 139.
 
16.5 All these technical specifications are addressed elsewhere in this Health Technical 
 
Memorandum.
 
16.6 These technical specifications are applied in Tables 1–8 of ENV 14237. The end-uses 
 
covered by these tables are as follows:
 
? Table 1 – bed textiles;
 
? Table 2 – pillows and quilts;
 
“healthcare”. Given the primary objective of anything used in healthcare being for patient 
 
comfort, there may well be adverse comment from the various healthcare providers, 
 
particularly where performances are given in respect of patients’/baby clothing.
 
There is every possibility that the future status of this document will be determined during 
 
the currency of this Health Technical Memorandum. Given the basic requirement of “does not 
 
ignite”, it can be assumed that the provisions made in this Health Technical
 
16  ENV 14237: textiles in the healthcare system
 
 
 
 
 
Memorandum will adequately cover any future recommendations in this area.
 
All technical specifications cited as being applicable to the various textile end-use 
 
applications are contained in this Health Technical Memorandum.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
35
 
 
 
 
 
 
17 The use of temporary structures (large tents and marquees)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
17.1 There will be many instances, particularly during the summer months, when functions 
 
such as open days or other such events could be organised in the grounds of a hospital. As a 
 
precaution against bad weather, a large temporary structure such as a tent, marquee, 
 
pneumatic structure, air-supported structure or similar structure may be erected.
 
17.2 Such structures may be completely free-standing or attached to the hospital building to 
 
provide additional accommodation. It is commonplace for some of these structures to have a 
 
seating capacity of several hundred.
 
17.3 These structures – by the very nature of their construction and the materials used – 
 
will present difficulties not normally found in conventional buildings. Their contents, 
 
brought in by the contractor, may also provide additional difficulties because of their 
 
possible temporary nature.
 
17.4 These difficulties will range from managing the provision and maintenance of the 
 
structural and other safety features to difficulties for the public, who may often find 
 
their routes of egress to be over uneven ground, temporary flooring, duckboards, ramps, 
 
stairways etc rather than the permanent surfaces found in conventional buildings.
17.5 
The risk assessment therefore needs to give consideration to the varying activities to be 
 
accommodated. Consideration also needs to be given to the proposed length of time for which 
 
the structure will be erected. The impact this may have on the normal fire-safety 
 
arrangements, such as the means of egress provided from the building of the hospital, will 
 
therefore need to be considered. Any designated means of escape that originally led to the 
 
open air may now only give access to the inside of the temporary structure, which may or may 
 
not be classified as a place of safety.
 
17.6 In addition to the normal ignitability and flame- spread characteristics/hazards 
 
associated with the use of large areas of textile materials, it is possible that other 
 
hazards, such as high levels of toxic hazard, could be presented if certain modern materials 
 
(for example fluorocarbon polymers) are used.
 
17.7 Consideration in the risk assessment must also be given to the nature of any internal 
 
decoration or drapes provided; this includes the provision of artificial grass on the ground 
 
inside the structure.
 
17.8 The fabric of the structure should be assessed in accordance with EN 14115. The 
 
assessment of the burning behaviour of the interior decorations used should be in accordance 
 
with Chapter 5 of this Health Technical Memorandum.
 
 
 
 
 
18 European CE (Conformité Européenne) Mark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General
 
18.1 The CE Mark is a visible declaration by the manufacturer (or his representative, 
 
importer etc) that the equipment/product which is marked complies with all the requirements 
 
of all the applicable directives (including the entire administrative requirement involved 
 
in being  able to demonstrate compliance).
 
18.2 The letters “CE” indicate that the manufacturer has undertaken all the assessment 
 
procedures required for the product.
 
18.3 The CE mark is not a quality mark and does  not indicate conformity to a standard; 
 
rather it indicates conformity to the legal requirements of the EU directives.
 
18.4 The CE Mark is now mandatory for all regulated products sold in the European Union.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Appendix A – European legislation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Introduction
 
1. This Appendix contains a summary of the principal provisions or essential requirements of 
 
the individual directives, Council decisions and Council recommendations identified as 
 
having a direct impact on textiles or specific textile end-use application. Under the 
 
provisions of the Treaty of Rome, the member states are required to provide the necessary 
 
national legislation to transpose the essential requirements and other provisions of 
 
directives into national law.
 
Directive 2001/95/EC – The General Product Safety Directive
 
2. It is this single directive that has the most significance as far as textiles are 
 
concerned (see Chapter 14).
 
Council Directive 89/106/EEC –  The Construction Products Directive
 
3. This directive applies to construction products/ materials and cannot be construed as 
 
being applicable to textiles generally. Textiles, by themselves, are not used in the 
 
“construction” of a building. They may, however, be incorporated in other construction 
 
materials such as wall or ceiling linings. The exception to this is soft floor coverings, 
 
and these are included in respect of their reaction- to-fire performance only.
 
4. The directive provides for the setting of classes of performance known as “Euroclasses”
 
. The member states are free to set their own level of performance, but only from within the 
 
seven classes given. The directive allows for the award of the CE mark to products, which 
 
ensures they may be used anywhere in the EU without the need for any further testing.
 
Commission Decision 2000/147/EC
– Reaction to fire performance of construction  products
 
5. Within this decision, Article 1 states that when the end-use application of a 
 
construction product is such that it may contribute to the generation and spread of fire and 
 
smoke within the room (or area of origin or beyond), the product shall be classified on the 
 
basis of its reaction to fire performance, having regard to the classification system set 
 
out in Tables 1 and 2 of the annex to the decision. Table 2 is applicable to flooring 
 
generally.
 
6. There are seven classes determined in the tables, and this includes a “no performance 
 
determined” category. The testing to be applied is listed in paragraphs 40, 41, 52 and 54 
 
of Appendix B in this Health Technical Memorandum; the actual performance required of the 
 
product can only be determined by the regulatory authorities in the member states. The 
 
smoke-producing potential of the flooring may be measured if required.
 
7. There has been a minor amendment to this decision by way of Commission Decision 
 
2003/632/EC.
 
Directive 89/391/EEC – The Safety and Health of Workers (Framework) Directive
 
8. The duties of the employer are given under Article
6. The employer is required to take all the measures necessary for the safety and health 
 
protection of workers. Under Article 8(1) the employer is required to take all the necessary 
 
measures for fire- fighting and evacuation of the workers. He/she is required to take into 
 
account “other persons present”.
 
9. Article 9(1)(a) obliges the employer to be in possession of an “assessment of the risks
 
” to safety and health at work for examination by the enforcing authority.
 
Appendix A – European legislation
 
 
 
 
 
Directive 89/654/EEC – The Minimum Safety and Health Requirements Directive
 
10. This directive defines a “workplace” as anywhere where any person works, and includes 
 
any other place within the workplace to which the worker has access. The directive contains 
 
two annexes, dealing with workplaces used for the first time and workplaces already in use. 
 
These annexes contain many of the provisions that are to be taken into account in the 
 
preparation of the assessment of  the risks. In completing the assessment, due consideration 
 
must be given to all the risks and/or hazards identified, and this will include a careful 
 
consideration of the fire behaviour of the contents, as this will be directly related to all 
 
the other fire safety provisions the workplace contains. Due cognisance will have to be 
 
given to the provisions of the General Product Safety Directive (2001/95/ EC) and the 
 
requirement to provide only “safe” products for use by the workers (consumers).
 
Directives 1999/45/EC and 67/548/EEC
– The Classification, Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Preparations
 
11. These directives do not have a direct application for textiles, but they do provide the 
 
legislative means for the Commission to introduce regulations and decisions that themselves 
 
have a direct impact on textile end-use applications (see paragraphs 13–18 below).
 
Regulation (EC) 1980/2000 – Eco-label award scheme
 
12. This regulation introduces a voluntary Community eco-label scheme intended to promote 
 
products with a reduced environmental impact during their entire life-cycle (see paragraphs 
 
13.4–13.8).
 
Commission Decision 2002/371/EC
– Textile products
 
13. This decision establishes a “product group” comprising clothing and accessories and 
 
interior textiles (see paragraphs 13.9–13.11).
 
Commission Decision 2002/740/EC
– Bed mattresses
 
14. This decision establishes a “product group” comprising of bed mattresses regardless of 
 
filling (latex or polyurethane) as well as interior sprung mattresses (see paragraphs 13.12
 
–13.13).
 
Directive 93/42/EEC – The Medical Devices Directive
 
15. See Chapter 15.
 
Directive 88/378/EEC – The Safety of Toys Directive
 
16. The relevant fire safety provisions of the directive are contained in Annex II Part II 
 
Clause 2. Within the provisions of this clause it is required that toys do not constitute a 
 
dangerous flammable element of a child’s environment. All the materials used must 
 
therefore:
 
? not burn if directly exposed to a flame or spark or other potential seat of fire;
 
? not be readily flammable (the flame must go out as soon as the fire cause disappears);
 
? burn slowly if they do ignite, and present a low rate of spread of flame;
 
? irrespective of the toy’s chemical composition, be treated so as to delay the combustion 
 
process;
 
17. EN 71-2 covers the methods of test for the flammability safety of toys. It has been 
 
prepared under a standardisation mandate and therefore supports the essential requirements 
 
of the directive. Logically, it is the only method of demonstrating any presumption of 
 
conformity (see paragraphs 3–12 in Appendix B).
 
18. The scope of the directive includes:
 
? toys to be worn on the head;
 
? toy disguise costumes and other toys intended to be worn by the child;
 
? toys intended to be entered by the child; and
 
? soft filled toys larger than 150 mm.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Council Resolution 2003/C11/01 – Community policy strategy 2002–2006
 
19. This Council resolution outlines, in general principles, the Commission’s consumer 
 
policy strategy for the four years starting in 2002. There is no mention of any specific 
 
target, but the principles will be applied to all future consumer safety  activity. 
 
Basically, the resolution confirms that the Commission attach a high level of importance to 
 
consumer safety as provided for in the General Product Safety Directive (2001/95/EC). Its 
 
provisions, therefore, are relevant to the contents
of this revision.
 
20. The resolution confirms its general support for the communication from the Commission to 
 
the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of 
 
the Regions.
 
Council Resolution 2003/C299/01
– Safety of services for consumers
 
21. The Council is moving towards to the publication of a directive to complement the 
 
General Product Safety Directive (2001/95/EC). Dealing with the safety of services, it is 
 
intended to provide the basic framework of all safety aspects in the provision of services 
 
generally. Until the document has been agreed, the Commission Services is asking member 
 
states to consider and express their views.
 
 
Appendix B – European and international
technical specifications
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Introduction
 
1. This appendix contains comments on the principal technical specifications published by 
 
CEN.
 
2. The technical specifications are listed in numerical order and not in order of any other 
 
importance.
 
EN 71-2 – Safety of Toys. Flammability
 
3. EN 71 has been prepared by CEN technical committee CENC52 under a mandate given to CEN by 
 
the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports the essential 
 
requirements of the EU directive.
 
4. Part 2 deals specifically with the flammability aspects of toy safety. However, part 2 
 
must be considered along with part 1, which deals with the general mechanical and physical 
 
properties of all toys.
 
5. Part 2 is based on the general principle that toys (as defined) must not constitute a 
 
dangerous flammable element in a child’s environment.  The technical specification 
 
therefore specifies the categories of material which are prohibited in all toys, and gives 
 
requirements concerning the flammability of certain toys when they are subjected to a small 
 
source of ignition.
 
6. The technical specification includes a reference to EN ISO 6941 as the cited means of 
 
evaluating the flame spread properties of vertically-oriented specimens, and to EN 1103 as 
 
the means of identifying the surface-flash properties of materials. The scope of the 
 
technical specification includes:
 
? toys to be worn on the head, which includes beards, moustaches, wigs etc, masks, and 
 
flowing material attached to hats, masks etc;
 
? toy disguise costumes and toys intended to be worn by a child;
 
? toys intended to be entered by a child;
 
? soft filled toys with a pile or textile surface and larger than 150 mm in height.
7. 
The testing protocol provides for the toys to be subjected to a small gas burner as 
 
described in ISO 6941, and either butane or propane may be
used. The basic testing configuration is amended to the various categories of toy as 
 
follows.
 
8. Clause 4.1 on general requirements provides for a definition of highly flammable solids 
 
and
flammable gases when used in the context of toys.
 
9. Clause 4.2 covers those toys intended to be worn on the head, such as masks, wigs and 
 
hats etc.
 
10. Clause 4.3 covers those toys worn by a child, such as disguise costumes.
 
11. Clause 4.4 covers those toys intended to be entered by a child, such as play tents, play 
 
tunnels etc.
 
12. Disguise costumes and toys which a child can enter are usually large. Therefore, a 
 
specially constructed U-shaped double frame has been designed to ensure that the material is 
 
secured throughout
the test. This is covered by Clause 5.1. In such circumstances, it is not the ease of 
 
ignition that presents the basic problem, it is the rate of spread of flame.
 
EN 597-1 – Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of mattresses and
upholstered bed-bases. Ignition source: smouldering cigarette
 
13. This standard is one of a series of standards concerned with the ignitability of 
 
mattresses and upholstered bed-bases using different ignition sources. The ignition source 
 
used in this standard is a smouldering cigarette. It cannot be assumed that protection 
 
against smouldering ignition sources will automatically provide protection against a flaming 
 
ignition source. Users of this standard should therefore recognise the need to submit test 
 
specimens to both smouldering (cigarette) and flaming (match flame equivalent) sources.
 
14. This standard lays down a test method to assess the ignitability of mattresses, 
 
upholstered bed-bases or
 
 
 
 
 
 
mattress pads when subjected to a smouldering ignition source (cigarette). Air mattresses 
 
and water beds are excluded from this standard. The full upper surface or upper-surface 
 
characteristic features of the mattress, bed-base or mattress pad is subjected to the 
 
contact of smouldering cigarettes by disposing the cigarettes so that all the zones having 
 
different characteristics are tested.
 
EN 597-2 – Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of mattresses and
upholstered bed-bases. Ignition source: match flame equivalent
 
15. This part of EN 597 is the same as part 1 except for the substitution of a small gas 
 
flame (match-flame equivalent) for the smouldering (cigarette) ignition source.
 
EN 1021-1 – Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture. Ignition 
 
source: smouldering cigarette
 
16. This part of the standard is one of a series of standards concerned with the 
 
ignitability of upholstered furniture using different ignition sources. The ignition source 
 
used in this part is a smouldering cigarette.
 
17. Part 1 lays down a test method to assess the ignitability of materials combinations, 
 
such as covers and fillings used in upholstered seating, when subjected to a smouldering 
 
cigarette as an ignition source. The test measures only the
ignitability of a combination of materials used in upholstered seating and not the 
 
ignitability of a particular item of finished furniture incorporating these materials. They 
 
give an indication of, but cannot guarantee, the ignition behaviour of the finished item of 
 
furniture.
 
18. The test sample is prepared using the materials combined together in a way intended to 
 
be generally representative of their end-use in upholstered seating; thus, the potential 
 
ignitability of a particular cover, filling and interliner, if provided, can be assessed.
 
EN 1021-2 – Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture. Ignition 
 
source: match-flame equivalent
 
19. The provisions of this part of EN 1021 are the same as part 1 except that the ignition 
 
source is a small flaming source equivalent to a match.
 
EN 1101 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes. Detailed 
 
procedure to determine the ignitability of vertically- oriented specimens (small flame)
 
20. This European standard specifies a procedure to determine the ignitability of textiles 
 
used for curtains and drapes by testing in accordance with BS EN ISO 6940. The preparation 
 
of the sample and the test procedure are as provided in BS EN ISO 6940. In addition, the 
 
provisions of EN ISO 6330 and BS EN ISO 3175-1&2 are applied.
 
EN 1102 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes. Detailed 
 
procedure to determine the flame spread of vertically-oriented specimens
 
21. This European standard specifies a procedure to determine the flame spread of textiles 
 
used for curtains and drapes by testing vertically-oriented specimens in accordance with EN 
 
ISO 6941. The sampling and test procedure are as provided in EN ISO 6941. Again, the 
 
provisions of EN ISO 6330 and EN ISO 3175 are applied.
 
EN 1103 – Textiles. Fabrics for apparel. Detailed procedure to determine the burning 
 
behaviour
 
22. This European standard specifies a procedure to determine the burning behaviour of 
 
textiles when tested using the surface ignition test in EN ISO 6941. Again, the provisions 
 
of EN ISO 6330 are applied. In the case of the testing protocol, only the outer surface of 
 
the fabric is tested; if the outer surface cannot be determined, only the surface shown by 
 
pre-testing to spread flame at a higher rate is tested. Where the material comprises more 
 
than a single layer, the combination of materials as worn is subjected to the test 
 
procedures. If there is
 
 
 
 
 
 
any occurrence of surface flash (defined in EN 1103), this is reported in the test report.
 
EN 1624 – Textiles and textile products.
Burning behaviour of industrial and technical textiles. Procedure to determine the flame 
 
spread of vertically-oriented specimens
 
23. This European standard specifies a procedure to determine the flame spread of 
 
vertically-oriented specimens of industrial and technical textiles, when tested in 
 
accordance with EN ISO 6941.
 
24. The definition of industrial and technical textiles means any textile which can be used 
 
for industrial or technical purposes. It does not include textiles for general purposes such 
 
as curtains and drapes, protective clothing, upholstery or bedding.
 
EN 1625 – Textiles and textile products.
Burning behaviour of industrial and technical textiles. Procedure to
determine the ignitability of vertically- oriented specimens
 
25. This European standard specifies a procedure to determine the ignitability of 
 
vertically-oriented specimens of industrial and technical textiles, when tested in 
 
accordance with EN ISO 6941.
 
26. The definition of industrial and technical textiles means any textile which can be used 
 
for industrial or technical purposes. It does not include textiles for general purposes such 
 
as curtains and drapes, protective clothing, upholstery or bedding.
 
EN 12229 – Surfaces for sports areas. Procedure for the preparation of synthetic turf and 
 
needle-punch pieces
 
27. This European standard specifies a procedure for the preparation of test pieces for 
 
synthetic turf and needle-punch sports surfaces. The test is applied to the surfacing and 
 
supporting layers. It is applied to carpet pile surfaces such as indoor bowling rinks and 
 
similar applications.
 
EN 12751 – Textiles. Sampling of fibres, yarns and fabrics for testing
 
28. This European standard specifies several test methods for preparing laboratory samples 
 
of fibres,
 
yarns or fabrics, and presents a limited treatment of the problems of drawing specimens for 
 
testing.
 
29. It is not possible for the coverage of each individual procedure to be fully 
 
comprehensive; in many instances, the selection of test samples or test specimens is 
 
necessarily covered by the appropriate method of test.
 
EN 13772 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes. 
 
Measurement of flame spread of vertically-oriented specimens with a large ignition source
 
30. This European standard specifies a method of test for the measurement of flame spread of 
 
vertically- oriented textile fabrics intended for curtains and drapes using a large ignition 
 
source. A heat flux of a defined energy is applied to a specified area of the lower part of 
 
the back side of the vertical specimen. After a period of exposure (30 sec), the small flame 
 
defined in BS EN ISO 6941 is applied for 10 sec  to a small piece of cotton fabric fixed 
 
around the bottom edge of the specimen. The possible flame spread is measured through the 
 
severance of marker threads.
 
31. While much of the test procedure etc is based
on BS EN ISO 6941, the size of the test sample has necessitated a number of adjustments to 
 
the test apparatus.
 
EN 13773 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes. 
 
Classification scheme
 
32. This European standard specifies a classification scheme for the burning behaviour of 
 
vertically- oriented fabrics intended for curtains and drapes and similar uses such as 
 
blinds and textile hangings, where classification is required. Untested materials are not 
 
classified. The classification scheme is based on the measurement of ignitability and flame 
 
spread according to the relevant European test methods – EN 1101, EN 1102 and EN 13772. The 
 
flame spread of the materials that are ignited by the small flame source (EN 1101 and EN 
 
1102) is measured with this same ignition source. The flame spread of materials that will 
 
not ignite with the small flame source is measured with a more severe ignition source. 
 
Ignitability and flame spread leads to a classification scheme with five classes (see Table 
 
3).
 
 
 
 
 
 
33. In the case of ignitability or ease of ignition, the classification scheme refers to the 
 
edge ignition test of EN 1101, modified by starting with 1 sec flame application time and 
 
increasing the ignition time by 1 sec steps up to 5 sec and then by 5 sec up to 20 sec if no 
 
ignition occurs. The flame spread classification refers to the ignition tests of EN 1102 and 
 
EN 13772.
 
EN 14115 – Textiles. Burning behaviour of materials for marquees, large tents and related 
 
products. Ease of ignition
 
34. This standard specifies a test method for the burning behaviour of industrial and 
 
technical textiles used for tarpaulins, large tents, marquees and related structures. It is 
 
not intended to apply to materials used for small camping tents, nor any other internal 
 
features, nor to awnings.
 
35. Test specimens are subjected under specified conditions to the dual effect of:
 
? heat radiation;
 
? hot gases flowing over the surface of test specimens to encourage any spread or 
 
propagation of the flames.
 
36. In this test protocol, a flame is used to ignite any gases emitted. The effects of 
 
ignition are noted and the extent of damage is measured.
 
EN 14533 – Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour of bedding items. 
 
Classification scheme
 
37. This European standard is one of five related standards (the other four being EN ISO 
 
12952- 1–4; see paragraphs 56–60 of this Appendix) for testing and classifying bedding 
 
items with regard to their burning behaviour. The standard specifies a classification scheme 
 
for the burning behaviour
of bedding items based on two ignition sources (smouldering cigarette and small open flame). 
 
The classification is applied to single bedding items and not to complete bed assemblies. 
 
The classification refers to all the EN ISO 12952 test methods for ignitability by a 
 
smouldering cigarette and by a small open flame.
 
EN ISO 139 – Textiles. Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
 
38. This international standard defines the characteristics and use of standard atmospheres 
 
for conditioning and for determining the physical and mechanical properties of textiles.
 
39. Before a textile is tested to determine a mechanical or physical property, it shall be 
 
conditioned by placing it in a standard temperate atmosphere for testing, in such a way that 
 
the air flows freely through the textiles, and keeping it there for the time required to 
 
bring it into equilibrium with the atmosphere.
 
40. The tests outlined in paragraphs 41, 42, 53 and 55 are not specifically applicable to 
 
textile end-use applications; they are concerned with construction products and have been 
 
prepared under a mandate from the European Commission. They are referred to in the 
 
Commission Decision 2000/147/EC (as amended by Commission Decision 2003/632/EC) and applied 
 
in Table 2 to floor coverings.
 
EN ISO 1182 – Reaction to fire tests for building products. Non-combustibility tests
 
41. This international standard specifies a method of test for determining the non-
 
combustibility performance, under specified conditions, of homogeneous building products and 
 
substantial components of non-homogeneous products.
 
EN ISO 1716 – Reaction to fire tests for building products. Determination of the heat of 
 
combustion
 
42. This international standard specifies a test method for the determination of the heat of 
 
combustion of building products at constant volume in a bomb calorimeter.
 
EN ISO 3175-4 – Textiles. Dry cleaning and finishing. Procedure for testing performance 
 
when cleaning and finishing using simulated wet cleaning
 
43. Part 4 of ISO 3175 specifies the simulation of professional wet cleaning procedures 
 
using a reference machine given in Annex A for fabrics and garments. It comprises a normal 
 
process for normal
 
 
 
 
 
 
materials, a mild process for sensitive materials, and a very mild process for very 
 
sensitive materials.
 
44. The specimen or specimens are cleaned in a reference washing-machine and finished to one 
 
of the specified procedures. The process simulates the effect of commercial professional wet 
 
cleaning, drying and finishing.
 
BS EN ISO 3758 – Textiles. Care labelling code using symbols
 
45. This international standard:
 
? establishes a system of graphic symbols intended for use in the permanent marking of 
 
textile articles, providing information essential for their proper care;
 
? specifies the use of these symbols in care labelling.
 
46. The following treatments are covered: washing; chlorine-bleaching; ironing; dry-
 
cleaning; and tumble-drying after washing. The standard applies to all textile articles in 
 
the form in which they are supplied to the consumer.
 
EN ISO 6330 – Textiles. Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing
 
47. This international standard specifies washing and drying procedures for textile testing. 
 
The procedures are applicable to textile fabrics, garments and other textile articles which 
 
are
subjected to appropriate combinations of domestic and washing procures.
 
48. A specimen is washed in an automatic washing- machine and dried according to a specified 
 
procedure which includes:
 
? “A” Line dry;
 
? “B” Drip dry;
 
? “C” Flat dry;
 
? “D” Flat press;
 
? “E” Tumble-dry.
 
EN ISO 6940 – Textile fabrics. Burning behaviour. Determination of ease
of ignition of vertically-oriented specimens
 
49. This international standard specifies a method for the measurement of ease of ignition 
 
of vertically- oriented textile fabrics intended for apparel, curtains and draperies in the 
 
form of single- or multi-component (coated, quilted, multi-layered, sandwich construction or 
 
similar combination) fabrics.
 
50. A defined ignition source from a specified burner is applied to textile specimens which 
 
are vertically oriented. The time necessary to achieve ignition is determined as the means 
 
of the measured times for ignition of the fabric. The minimum ignition time is defined as 
 
the minimum time of exposure of the material to an ignition source to obtain sustained 
 
combustion under specified test conditions.
 
EN ISO 6941 – Textile fabrics. Burning behaviour. Measurement of flame spread properties of 
 
vertically-oriented specimens
 
51. This international standard species a method for the measurement of flame spread 
 
properties of vertically-oriented textile fabrics intended for apparel, curtains, draperies 
 
and large tents including awnings and marquees, in the form
of single- or multi-component (coated, quilted, multi-layered, sandwich construction and 
 
similar combinations) fabrics.
 
52. A defined ignition flame from a specified burner  is applied for a defined period of 
 
time to textile specimens which are vertically oriented. The flame spread time is the time 
 
in seconds for a flame to travel between marker threads located at defined
distances. Other properties relating to flame spread may also be observed, measured and 
 
recorded. These parameters include the presence of after- flame or afterglow.
 
 
 
 
 
 
EN ISO 9239-1 – Reaction to fire tests. Horizontal spread of flame on floor- covering 
 
systems. Determination of the burning behaviour using a radiant heat source
 
53. This international standard specifies a method for assessing the wind-opposed burning 
 
behaviour and spread of flame of horizontally-mounted floorings exposed to a heat-flux 
 
radiant gradient in a test chamber, when ignited by pilot flames. The method is applicable 
 
to all types of flooring.
 
EN ISO 10528 – Textiles. Commercial laundering procedure for textile fabrics prior to 
 
flammability testing
 
54. This international standard specifies methods for assessing the possible effect of 
 
repeated commercial laundering on the flammability of textile fabrics. The effect of 
 
laundering is simulated using an automatic drum washing-machine or small-scale laundry drum 
 
(wash wheel).
 
EN ISO 11925-2 – Reaction to fire tests. Ignitability of building products subjected to 
 
direct impingement of flame. Single-flame source test
 
55. This international standard specifies a method of test for determining the ignitability 
 
of building products by direct small flame impingement under zero-impressed irradiance using 
 
specimens tested in a vertical orientation. Products that melt and shrink away from the 
 
flame without being ignited may be addressed by an additional procedure given in the 
 
standard.
 
EN ISO 12952-1 –Textiles. Burning behaviour of bedding items. General test methods for the 
 
ignitability by a smouldering cigarette
 
56. This international standard specifies a general test method common to all bedding items 
 
for assessment of their ignitability when subjected to a smouldering cigarette. It should be 
 
read in conjunction with EN ISO 12952-2, which
describes a specific test method for bedding items that can normally be placed on a 
 
mattress. These will include:
 
? mattress covers;
underlays;
 
? incontinence sheets and pads;
 
? sheets;
 
? blankets;
 
? electric blankets (not the electrical component);
 
? quilts or duvets and covers;
 
? pillows (whatever their filling);
 
? bolsters;
 
? pillowcases.
 
57. For the purposes of this test, the test specimen
is placed on a testing substrate and is subjected to a smouldering cigarette placed on top 
 
of and/or below the test specimen as detailed in EN ISO 12952-2. Any progressive smouldering 
 
and/or
flaming is reported. Where the actual mattress to be used is known, it can replace the 
 
testing substrate.
 
EN ISO 12952-2 – Textiles. Burning behaviour of bedding items. Specific test methods for 
 
the ignitability by a smouldering cigarette
 
58. This European standard specifies product-specific details concerning specimen size, wash 
 
procedures, set-up of specimens and positions of cigarettes for testing bedding items 
 
according to the methods described in EN ISO 12952-1. It must be used in conjunction with 
 
part 1 at all times.
 
EN ISO 12952-3 – Textiles. Burning behaviour of bedding items. General test methods for the 
 
ignitability by a small open flame
 
59. This European standard is the same as part 1 except that the ignition source of a 
 
smouldering cigarette is replaced by a small open flame (match-flame equivalent).
 
EN ISO 12952-4 –Textiles. Burning behaviour of bedding items. Specific test methods for the 
 
ignitability by a small open flame
 
60. This European standard is the same as part 2 except that the ignition source of a 
 
smouldering cigarette is replaced by a small open flame (match-flame equivalent). This part 
 
must be used with part 3 at all times.
 
 
Appendix C – British Standards with their date
of original publication
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Most of the British Standards in this Appendix are presently being considered by the 
 
appropriate BS technical committee for probable withdrawal in compliance with the 
 
obligations placed on the members of CEN. The publication of the technical specifications 
 
given in Appendix B imposed this obligation, and this is an active current work item for 
 
BSI.
 
2. The date in brackets ( ) is the confirmed date, indicating continued currency of the 
 
standard without full revision.
 
? BS 2483 1977 (1983) Specification for overbed tables.
 
?   BS 4790 1987 (1996) Method for determination of the effects of a small source of 
 
ignition on textile floor coverings (hot metal nut method).
 
? BS 5223-2 1999 Specification for hospital bedding. Combustion modified, flexible 
 
polyurethane, general purpose foam mattress cores.
 
? BS 5223-3 1976 (1998) Specification for hospital bedding. Flexible polyurethane pillows.
 
? BS 5223-4 1976 (1995) Specification for hospital bedding. Mattress covers of polyurethane 
 
coated nylon.
 
? BS 5287 1988 (1996) Specification for the assessment and labelling of textile floor 
 
covering tested to BS 4790.
 
? BS 5438 1989 (2002) Methods of test for flammability of textile fabrics when subjected to 
 
a small igniting flame applied to the face or bottom edge of vertically oriented specimens.
 
? BS 5651 1989 (2002) Method for cleansing and wetting procedures for use in the assessment 
 
of the effect of cleansing and wetting on the flammability of textile fabrics and fabric 
 
assemblies.
BS 5722 1991 (2002) Specification for flammability performance of fabrics and fabric 
 
combinations used in nightwear garments.
 
? BS 5742 1989 (1995) Specification for textile labels requiring to be washed and/or dry 
 
cleaned.
 
? BS 5815-1 2005 Sheets, sheeting, pillowslips, towels, napkins, counterpanes and 
 
continental quilt secondary covers suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for 
 
sheeting, sheets and pillowcases.
 
?    BS 5815-3 1991 (1999) Sheets, sheeting, pillowslips, towels, napkins, counterpanes and 
 
continental quilt secondary covers suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for 
 
counterpanes and continental quilt secondary covers including flammability performance.
 
? BS 5852 2006 Method of test for the assessment of the ignitability of upholstered seating 
 
by smouldering and flaming ignition sources.
 
? BS 5866-1 1990 (1998) Blankets suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for 
 
wool and wool/polyamide blankets.
 
? BS 5866-2 1991 (1998) Blankets suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for 
 
cotton leno cellular blankets.
 
? BS 5866-3 1991 (1998) Blankets suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for 
 
synthetic fibre cellular blankets.
 
? BS 5866-4 1991 (1998) Blankets suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for 
 
flammability performance.
 
? BS 5867-2 1980 (2002) Specification for fabrics for curtains and drapes. Flammability 
 
requirements.
 
? BS 6807 2006 Methods of test for assessment of the ignitability of mattresses, upholstered 
 
divans
 
 
 
 
 
and upholstered bed-bases with flaming types of primary and secondary sources of ignition.
 
? BS 7175 1989 (1994) Methods of test for the ignitability of bedcovers and pillows by 
 
smouldering and flaming ignition sources.
 
? BS 7176 1995 Specification for resistance to ignition of upholstered furniture for non- 
 
domestic seating by testing composites.
 
? BS 7177 1996 Specification for resistance to ignition of mattresses, divans and bed-bases.
 
? ISO 8191-1 & 2 Fire tests for upholstered furniture, have not been adopted by BSI and 
 
therefore do not carry a BS ISO number. Reference should be made to BS EN 1021-1
& 2.
 
 
Appendix D – Quick reference to products and British Standards
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
British Standard
Fixed screens
BS 476*
Upholstered furniture
BS 7176
Loose covers
BS 5852 
 
ignition source 1
Divan beds and mattresses
BS 7177 ignition source 5 or 7
Pillows, quilts etc
 
 
BS 7175 ignition source 0 and 5
Pressure relief
BS 7175 ignition source 0 and 5
Blankets
BS 
 
5866-4
Counterpanes
BS 5815-3
Curtains, drapes and blinds
BS 5438 or BS 5867
Note:
*  Requires a surface spread of flame achieving Class 0. This is not a classification 
 
identified by any British Standard test. It is defined as the classification achieved by a 
 
material or composite product which is either:
 
? composed throughout by materials of limited combustibility; or
 
? a Class 1 material when tested in accordance with BS 476-7, which has a fire propagation 
 
index (l) of not more than 12 and sub-index (i1) of not more than 6.
 
 
 
Note
 
The entire international, European and national technical specifications listed in this 
 
memorandum are available from: British Standards Institution, Customer Service Sales 
 
Department, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL. Tel: 0208 996 7000.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acts and regulations
 
(The) Building Regulations 2000, SI 2000 No 2531.
HMSO, 2000.
www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2000/20002531.htm
 
(The) Building Regulations 2000: Approved Document B: Fire Safety – Volume 2. Department 
 
for Communities and Local Government, 2005.
 
(The) Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) (Amendment) Regulations 1993, SI 1993 No 
 
207.
HMSO, 1993.
www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1993/Uksi_19930207_en_1.htm
 
(The) Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988, SI 1988 No 1324. HMSO, 
 
1988.
www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1988/Uksi_19881324_en_1.htm
 
(The) Medical Devices (Amendment) Regulations 2003, SI 2003 No 1697. HMSO, 2003.
www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2003/20031697.htm
 
(The) Medical Devices Regulations 2002, SI 2002 No 618. HMSO, 2002.
www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si2002/20020618.htm
 
The Nightwear (Safety) (Amendment) Regulations 1987, SI 1987 No 286. HMSO, 1987.
www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1987/Uksi_19870286_en_1.htm
 
The Nightwear (Safety) Regulations 1985, SI 1985 No 2043. HMSO,  1985.
 
(The) Public Contracts Regulations 2006, SI 2006 No 5. HMSO, 2006.
www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2006/20060005.htm
 
(The) Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005, SI 2005 No 541. HMSO, 2005.
www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2005/20051541.htm
 
European Union legislation
 
Commission Decision 2000/147/EC of 8 February 2000 implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC 
 
as regards the classification of the reaction to fire performance of construction products. 
 
Official Journal of the European Communities. No L050, 23.02.2000, p 14.
 
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2000/l_050/l_ 05020000223en00140018.pdf
 
Commission Decision 2000/367/EC of 3 May 2000 implementing Council Directive 89/106/EEC as 
 
regards the classification of the resistance to fire performance of construction products, 
 
construction works and parts thereof. Official Journal of the European Communities. No L133, 
 
06.06.2000, p 26.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2000/l_133/l_ 13320000606en00260032.pdf
 
Commission Decision 2002/371/EC of 15 May 2002 establishing the ecological criteria for the 
 
award of the Community eco-label to textile products and amending Decision 1999/178/EC. 
 
Official Journal of the European Communities. No L133, 18.05.2002, p 29. eur-
 
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2002/l_133/l_ 13320020518en00290041.pdf
 
Commission Decision 2002/740/EC of 3 September 2002 establishing revised ecological criteria 
 
for the award of the Community eco-label to bed mattresses and amending Decision 98/634/EC. 
 
Official Journal of the European Communities. No L236, 04.09.2002, p 10. eur-
 
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2002/l_236/l_ 23620020904en00100015.pdf
 
Commission Decision 2003/629/EC of 27 August 2003 amending Decision 2000/367/EC establishing 
 
a classification system for resistance-to-fire performance for construction products, as 
 
regards the inclusion of smoke and heat control products. Official Journal of the European 
 
Union. No L218, 30.08.2003, p 51.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2003/l_218/l_ 21820030830en00510054.pdf
 
Commission Decision 2003/632/EC of 26 August 2003 amending Decision 2000/147/EC implementing 
 
Council Directive 89/106/EEC as regards the classification of the reaction-to-fire 
 
performance of construction products. Official Journal of the European Union. No L220, 
 
03.09.2003, p 5.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2003/l_220/l_ 22020030903en00050006.pdf
 
 
 
 
 
 
Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and 
 
administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of 
 
dangerous substances. Official Journal of the European Communities. No P196, 16.08.1967, p 
 
1. ec.europa.eu/environment/dansub/consolidated_en.htm
 
Council Directive 88/378/EEC of 3 May 1988 on the approximation of the laws of the Member 
 
States concerning the safety of toys. Official Journal of the European Communities. No L187, 
 
16.07.1988, p 1. eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31988L0378:EN:HTML
 
Council Directive 89/106/EEC of 21 December 1988 on the approximation of laws, regulations 
 
and
administrative provisions of the Member States relating to construction products. Official 
 
Journal of the European Communities. No L040, 11.02.1989, p 12. eur-
 
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31989L0106:EN:HTML
 
Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage 
 
improvements in the safety and health of workers at work. Official Journal of the European 
 
Communities. No L183, 1989.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31989L0391:EN:HTML
 
Council Directive 89/654/EEC of 30 November 1989 concerning the minimum safety and health 
 
requirements for the workplace (first individual directive within the meaning of Article 16 
 
(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC). Official Journal of the European Communities.
No L393, 30.12.1989, p 1.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31989L0654:EN:HTML
 
Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices. Official Journal of 
 
the European Communities. No L169, 12.07.1993, p 1. eur-
 
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/consleg/1993/ L/01993L0042-20031120-en.pdf
 
Council Regulation 880/92/EEC of 23 March 1992 on a Community eco-label award scheme. 
 
Official Journal of the European Communities. No L099, 11.04.1992,
p 1.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31992R0880:EN:HTML
 
Council Resolution 2003/C 11/01 of 2 December 2002 on Community consumer policy strategy 
 
2002–2006. Official Journal of the European Communities.
No C011, 17.01.2003, p 1.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX
:32003G0117(01):EN:HTML
 
Council Resolution of 1 December 2003 on safety of services for consumers. Official Journal 
 
of the European Communities. No C 299, 10.12.2003, p 1.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2003/c_ 299/c_29920031210en00010002.pdf
 
Directive 1999/45/EC of the European Parliament and  of the Council of 31 May 1999 
 
concerning the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the 
 
Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous 
 
preparations. Official Journal of the European Communities. No L200, 30.07.1999, p 1.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/1999/l_200/l_ 20019990730en00010068.pdf
 
Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 December 2001 on 
 
general product safety. Official Journal of the European Communities. No L11, 15.01.2002, p 
 
4.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2002/l_011/l_ 01120020115en00040017.pdf
 
Regulation (EC) No 1980/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 July 2000 
 
on a revised Community eco-label award scheme. Official Journal of the European Communities. 
 
No L237, 21.09.2000, p 1.
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2000/l_237/l_ 23720000921en00010012.pdf
 
British Standards
 
BS 476-7:1997 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method of test to determine 
 
the classification of the surface spread of flame of products. British Standards 
 
Institution, 1997.
 
BS 2483:1977 Specification for overbed tables. British Standards Institution, 1977.
 
BS 4790:1987 Method for determination of the effects of a small source of ignition on 
 
textile floor coverings (hot metal nut method). British Standards Institution, 1987.
 
BS 5223-2:1999 Specification for hospital bedding. Combustion modified, flexible 
 
polyurethane, general purpose foam mattress cores. Specification. British Standards 
 
Institution, 1999.
 
BS 5223-3:1976 Specification for hospital bedding. Flexible polyurethane pillows. British 
 
Standards Institution,  1976.
 
BS 5223-4:1976 Specification for hospital bedding. Mattress covers of polyurethane coated 
 
nylon. British Standards Institution, 1976.
 
 
 
 
 
 
BS 5287:1988 Specification for assessment and labelling of textile floor coverings tested to 
 
BS 4790. British Standards Institution, 1988.
 
BS 5438:1989 Methods of test for flammability of textile fabrics when subjected to a small 
 
igniting flame applied to the face or bottom edge of vertically oriented specimens. British 
 
Standards Institution, 1989.
 
BS 5651:1989 Method for cleansing and wetting procedures for use in the assessment of the 
 
effect of cleansing and wetting on the flammability of textile fabrics and fabric 
 
assemblies. British Standards Institution,  1989.
 
BS 5722:1991 Specification for flammability performance of fabrics and fabric combinations 
 
used in nightwear garments. British Standards Institution, 1991.
 
BS 5742:1989 Specification for textile labels requiring to be washed and/or dry cleaned. 
 
British Standards Institution,  1989.
 
BS 5815-1:2005 Sheets, sheeting, pillowslips, towels, napkins, counterpanes and continental 
 
quilt secondary covers suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for sheeting, 
 
sheets and pillowslips. British Standards Institution,  2005.
 
BS 5815-3:1991 Sheets, sheeting, pillowslips, towels, napkins, counterpanes and continental 
 
quilt secondary covers suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for counterpanes 
 
and continental quilt secondary covers including flammability performance. British Standards 
 
Institution,  1991.
 
BS 5852:2006 Methods of test for assessment of the ignitability of upholstered seating by 
 
smouldering and flaming ignition sources. British Standards Institution, 2006.
 
BS 5852-2:1982 Fire tests for furniture. Methods of test for the ignitability of upholstered 
 
composites for seating by flaming sources. British Standards Institution, 1982.
 
BS 5866-1:1990 Blankets suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for wool and 
 
wool/polyamide blankets. British Standards Institution, 1990.
 
BS 5866-2:1991 Blankets suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for cotton leno 
 
cellular blankets. British Standards Institution, 1991.
 
BS 5866-3:1991 Blankets suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for synthetic 
 
fibre cellular blankets. British Standards Institution, 1991.
 
BS 5866-4:1991 Blankets suitable for use in the public sector. Specification for 
 
flammability performance. British Standards Institution, 1991.
 
BS 5867-1:2004 Specification for fabrics for curtains and drapes. General requirements. 
 
British Standards Institution,  2004.
 
BS 5867-2:1980 Specification for fabrics for curtains and drapes. Flammability requirements. 
 
British Standards Institution,  1980.
 
BS 6807:2006 Methods of test for assessment of ignitability of mattresses, upholstered 
 
divans and upholstered bed bases with flaming types of primary and secondary sources of 
 
ignition. British Standards Institution,  2006.
 
BS 7175:1989 Methods of test for the ignitability of bedcovers and pillows by smouldering 
 
and flaming ignition sources. British Standards Institution, 1989.
 
BS 7176:1995 Specification for resistance to ignition of upholstered furniture for non-
 
domestic seating by testing composites. British Standards Institution, 1995.
 
BS 7177:1996 Specification for resistance to ignition of mattresses, divans and bed bases. 
 
British Standards Institution,  1996.
 
BS EN 71-1:2005 Safety of toys. Mechanical and physical properties. British Standards 
 
Institution, 2005.
 
BS EN 71-2:2006 Safety of toys. Flammability. British Standards Institution, 2006.
 
BS EN 597-1:1995 Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of mattresses and upholstered bed 
 
bases. Ignition source: smouldering cigarette. British Standards Institution,  1995.
 
BS EN 597-2:1995 Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of mattresses and upholstered bed 
 
bases. Ignition source: match flame equivalent. British Standards Institution, 1995.
 
BS EN 1021-1:2006 Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture. 
 
Ignition source: smouldering cigarette. British Standards Institution, 2006.
 
BS EN 1021-2:2006 Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture. 
 
Ignition source: match flame equivalent. British Standards Institution, 2006.
 
BS EN 1101:1996 Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes. 
 
Detailed procedure to determine the ignitability of vertically oriented specimens (small 
 
flame). British Standards Institution, 1996.
 
BS EN 1102:1996 Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes. 
 
Detailed procedure to
 
 
 
 
 
 
determine the flame spread of vertically oriented specimens. British Standards Institution, 
 
1996.
 
BS EN 1103:2005 Textiles. Fabrics for apparel. Detailed procedure to determine the burning 
 
behaviour. British Standards Institution, 2005.
 
BS EN 1624:1999 Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour of industrial and technical 
 
textiles. Procedure to determine the flame spread of vertically oriented specimens. British 
 
Standards Institution, 1999.
 
BS EN 1625:1999 Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour of industrial and technical 
 
textiles. Procedure to determine the ignitability of vertically oriented specimens. British 
 
Standards Institution, 1999.
 
BS EN 12229:2007 Surfaces for sports areas. Procedure for the preparation of synthetic turf 
 
and needle-punch pieces. British Standards Institution, 2007.
 
BS EN 12751:1999 Textiles. Sampling of fibres, yarns and fabrics for testing. British 
 
Standards Institution, 1999.
 
BS EN 13501-1:2007 Fire classification of construction products and building elements. 
 
Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests. British Standards Institution,  
 
2007.
 
BS EN 13772:2003 Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes. 
 
Measurement of flame spread of vertically oriented specimens with large ignition source. 
 
British Standards Institution, 2003.
 
BS EN 13773:2003 Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour. Curtains and drapes. 
 
Classification scheme. British Standards Institution, 2003.
 
BS EN 14115:2002 Textiles. Burning behaviour of materials for marquees, large tents and 
 
related products. Ease of ignition. British Standards Institution, 2002.
 
BS EN 14533:2003 Textiles and textile products. Burning behaviour of bedding items. 
 
Classification scheme. British Standards Institution, 2003.
 
BS EN ISO 139:2005 Textiles. Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing. British 
 
Standards Institution, 2005.
 
BS EN ISO 1182:2002 Reaction to fire tests for building products. Non-combustibility test. 
 
British Standards Institution,  2002.
 
BS EN ISO 1716:2002 Reaction to fire tests for building products. Determination of the heat 
 
of combustion. British Standards Institution, 2002.
 
BS EN ISO 3175-1:1998 Textiles. Dry cleaning and finishing. Method for assessing the 
 
cleanability of textiles and garments. British Standards Institution, 1998.
 
BS EN ISO 3175-2:1998 Textiles. Dry cleaning and finishing. Procedures for 
 
tetrachloroethene. British Standards Institution, 1998.
 
BS EN ISO 3175-4:2003 Textiles. Dry cleaning and finishing. Procedure for testing 
 
performance when cleaning and finishing using simulated wet cleaning. British Standards 
 
Institution, 2003.
 
BS EN ISO 3758:2005 Textiles. Care labelling code using symbols. British Standards 
 
Institution, 2005.
 
BS EN ISO 6330:2001 Textiles. Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing. 
 
British Standards Institution,  2001.
 
BS EN ISO 6940:2004 Textile fabrics. Burning behaviour. Determination of ease of ignition of 
 
vertically oriented specimens. British Standards Institution, 2004.
 
BS EN ISO 6941:2003 Textile fabrics. Burning behaviour. Measurement of flame spread 
 
properties of vertically oriented specimens. British Standards Institution,  2003.
 
BS EN ISO 9000:2005 Quality management systems. Fundamentals and vocabulary. British 
 
Standards Institution,  2005.
 
BS EN ISO 9000-1:1994 Quality management and quality assurance standards. Guidelin


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